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White, W.A. (1935). Emotions and Bodily Changes. Psychoanal. Rev., 22(4):439-447.

(1935). Psychoanalytic Review, 22(4):439-447

Special Review

Emotions and Bodily Changes

Review by:
William A. White

Psychiatry during the present century has been consistently straining at its leashes more and more until it has finally succeeded, very definitely here and there, in breaking the bonds that tied it so firmly to the consideration of the terminal stages of malignant mental diseases as found in public mental institutions. The handful of psychiatrists who have been standing on the firing-line for the past half century and have prophesied this trend have gradually had their numbers augmented and seen their predictions come true, namely, their convictions to the effect that the dualistic conception of the human organism as body and mind must gradually give way to a concept of the organism-as-a-whole, and that in harmony with this changed point of view it would necessarily be found that illness was not either mental or physical but it was in every instance both mental and physical, that psychiatry as a medical specialty was not like other medical specialties in the sense that it could continue indefinitely to isolate itself from other departments of medicine, or, for that matter, from knowledge in general. It necessarily was the medical specialty above all others that had to take into consideration the total individual in all his ramifications, whether as an organism-as-a-whole, on the one hand, or as such an organism functioning in a social setting. It inevitably followed from this evolutionary change in the way of thinking, about which psychiatry has had so much to do, that the mental aspects of disease, the psychological factors, should be sought in all disease no matter where found; in fact, that the concept of disease itself should necessarily be revamped in terms of this new way of looking at the organism and its functions.

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