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Willard, C. Jelliffe, S.E. (1939). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(2):270-286.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(2):270-286

International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

Clara Willard and Smith Ely JelliffeAuthor Information

(Vol. XVI, Part 1)

1.   Low, Barbara. Psychological Compensations of the Artist. 1.

2.   Boehm, Felix. Anthropology: Its Forms and Motives. 9.

3.   Schmideberg, Melitta. Psychoanalysis of Asocial Children and Adolescents. 22.

4.   Marui, Kiyoyasu. The Process of Introjection in Melancholia. 49.

5.   Weiss, Edoardo. Agoraphobia and Its Relation to Hysterical Attacks and to Traumas. 59.

6.   Bergler, Edmund. Special Varieties of Ejaculatory Disturbance Not Hitherto Described. 84.

1.   Low, B. Compensations of Artist.—In a short communication concerning the requirements of the analyst and difficulties to be overcome, attention is directed towards certain compensations in his work, especially when the situation of having been analyzed is contemplated. The analyst may be satisfying some of his own infantile-genital phase cravings, his early voyeur wishes, etc. How is he to remain objective and forge many of these early gratifications as they are unfolded in the

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analysis, or to keep from being a comforter or an offerer of quick healing. Complete analysis is a fiction, as is recognized, and attention is directed towards three deprivations imposed upon the analyst. Inhibition of pregenital narcissistic pleasure is shown in impatience, resentment, retaliation; inhibition of dogmatic certitude, and the most difficult modifications of analyst's own superego. Objectivity in interpretation is difficult, for emotional reactivity is impossible to put out of court, nor is it desirable. Attention is called to Strachey's “Imitative Interpretation” paper (see Psychoanalytic Review, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, p. 127) as bearing on the problems dealt with. Imitative interpretation is the product of the analyst's insight born of free contact with his own emotions. Interpretation is an important process, if forthcoming at the appropriate stage and directed truly to its goal can have the highest dynamic influence on the patient's unconscious and release functional forces of great value to the patient. Here artistic recreation and sharing in the patients’ lives becomes of great compensating advantage. This must be a true sharing and not only an infantile voyeur gratification. As Hamlet demanded of his players “temperance and tranquillity” with the “passions,” one gets, Low writes, from Freud's writings that sense of true creative satisfaction. A similar enrichment comes from Groddeck's freedom of phantasy. If the analyst can “eat his own meal” side by side with the patient's, he has access to a free pleasure and can “relive his own inner sequence.” “The analyst's successful achievement, for himself and for patient alike, can best be described if we turn again to Freud and his picture of the artist. The artist (analyst) obtains his material, moulds, and illuminates it by fusion with his own unconscious and presents it again, thus reshaped, in terms acceptable to reality demands and to the unconscious of the world. Through such revelation he obtains a means of release both for his fellowman and for himself.

2.   Boehm, F. Anthropology.—The early cannibalistic stage of libido activity is here discussed, following conceptions of Freud and Abraham. As a social fact, eating human flesh still exists and its earlier existence was universal. It is not due to food scarcity, although at times such a factor enters into tribal wars. Epicurism is an interesting motive, and different tribes had their special ‘tid-bits’ of human bodies. The tongue, heart, brain, eye, etc., each in turn rationalized as to superiority. A number of examples are given of contagious magic acquired from bits of the eaten body and their attendant religious ceremonials. The inner meanings and many of the rationalizations are discussed in the light of primitive, infantile sadisms. “I love you so much I could eat you up” has many repercussions in the unconscious, and fellatio phantasies have their beginnings in these promptings, hence incorporation phantasies in the repressed psychotic-schizophrenic ideas are quoted.

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3.   Schmideberg, M. Asocial Children. Adolescent Analysis. Notes from the analyses of six asocial patients, ranging from five to twenty years of age are here given. Willy, eight, an aggressive, shameless, stealing, amoral boy. His aggression was aimed at everything identified with father's penis. Sadistic homosexual and heterosexual intercourse was constantly being symbolized. Everyone was his enemy, all objects were objects of attack, and he wished to destroy everything fearful. George, twenty, was an unusually quarrelsome and unsociable youth, changing his job, still unskilled, with deeply repressed sadistic impulses with paranoid covers. Continuing on the theme of stealing, the motives of several of the children are revealed. With Willy, hatred and destruction of his father's genitals, to deprive others and to possess himself. Further, possession allayed anxiety. Oral introjection was primary. In Ruth, from the age of five, stealing made possible an hallucinatory fulfillment of unconscious wishes. She was ‘loved,’ since the objects stolen were ‘presents’ given to her. Things she envied the mother's possessing—father's penis, children, breast. Stealing allayed anxiety and aggression. Further observations are presented on lying, which represents a flight from reality, words being substitutes for actions. Lying may take the place of stealing on the road to cure, as with Willy. Lotte finding no outlet in phantasy or in action, utilized lying as the outlet for the unconscious. Her aggression was only satisfied by seeing two people hurt each other. Words as excrement were the reliance of Henry (eight). He found his words on the bowel function pattern. Lying, grandeur, big bowel movement were his equations.

Calumny changes a good object into a bad one, justifying one's own aggression and arousing that of others. It is traceable to ideas of sadistic intercourse with projected self-reproaches directed against introjected objects. Many delusions are closely allied.

Simulation is an attempt by the ego to rationalize a process which is compulsive and from simulation to dissociation is a short way. Truancy she believes originally signified expulsion. All the patients showed strong anxiety relative to being deserted. Running away is a modified form of suicide. Sexual shamelessness gives no pleasure but is a mask or defence against anxiety. The use of obscene words for Willy was as if defecating, vomiting, screaming. Also to dirty and damage others. The formula that asocial persons are amoral does not go deep enough. The absence of a sense of guilt is not necessarily the absence of the superego. A distinction is drawn between ego-ideal and superego. The latter comprises more of the strongly desexualized imagoes, the narcissistically loved imagoes, nearer to conscious awareness are more libidinally invested. In the asocial children the failure is more in the ego-ideal. The super-ego is always there. Analysis withdraws libido from the cruel super-ego, thus strengthening both the ego and the ego-ideal. The identification with bad prototypes hence children seem

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to prefer to follow bad examples, to do the forbidden thing, unconsciously projected as a ‘good’ object refused them by the parents. There are a great number of very useful and practical issues in this paper which defies abstracting because of its many details. It should be read.

4.   Marui, K. Introjection in Melancholia.—This paper outlines the historical stages in the development of this situation. Freud, Abraham, Rado, Fenichel are quoted, and the observations of other analysts are quoted and an analysis of the melancholia of a twenty-five-year-old medical student is given, too detailed for abstraction. It illustrates the mechanism of introjection of the superego of the object into that of the subject. The patient wished to assure himself that the prostitute with whom he had lost his innocence was pretty and of good birth, and his assumption that a girl with whom he had relations was a virgin may be taken as an indication that his ego was begging forgiveness from the severe superego. The patient's ego behaved towards the introjected superego just as in childhood, his grandmother (superego imago) had behaved toward him.

5.   Weiss, E. Agoraphobia, Hysteria and Trauma.—As a result of the analysis of some twenty cases of agoraphobia and of traumatic neurosis the author is led to believe here there is a threefold relation: the significance of hysterical attacks, psychic trauma and agoraphobic anxiety. He extends the Freudian interpretation of the hysterical arc de cercle attitude in the female to include the wish-penis, later developed by Rado as a universal female phantasy. Other hysterical displacements are described and he goes on to discuss agoraphobia as an anxiety attack to ‘get out,’ meaning (a) I am grown up and can do as I please, (b) I am my own master, and (c) I am no longer in charge of my parents. Hence sexual temptations and exhibitions may be permitted. Agoraphobics often have lost a parent in childhood, thus fulfilling a part of the wish. Abandonment lies close, and there are many nuances of this need to and anxiety about going it alone. A number of cases are described, too detailed for abstraction, leading to the general conclusion that agoraphobia may be considered as a true traumatic neurosis in which the trauma comes from within, with massive repression of instinct to protect itself from repetition of the trauma. The death instinct formulation of Freud throws light on the mechanism of psychic trauma and illumines the differences between ‘the mechanism of the transference neurosis and the true traumatic neuroses.’

6.   Bergler, E. Ejaculatory Disturbances.Material from his book on psychical impotence in man, dealing with retarded ejaculation, psychogenic aspermia, and coitus as a defense against enuresis. [Refer Psychoanal. Rev., 401, 1936.]

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(Vol. XVI, Part 2)

1.   Glover, E. A Developmental Study of the Obsessional Neurosis. 131.

2.   Klein, M. A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States. 145.

3.   Behn-Eschenburg, H. The Antecedents of the Œdipus Complex. 175.

4.   Sharpe, E. F. Similar and Divergent Unconscious Determinants Underlying the Sublimations of Pure Art and Pure Science. 186.

5.   Bergler, E. An Enquiry into the “Material Phenomenon.” 203.

6.   Hermann, I. The Use of the Term “Active” in the Definition of Masculinity. 219.

1.   Glover, E. Obsessional Neurosis.—The obsessional neurosis is the most elastic of all the neuroses. It stretches between the hysterical and psychotic symptomatologies and defies being categorized. It is a process permitting a regressive flight from the anxieties induced by advancing development and at the same time functions to stem regression. If the hysterical defence fails, the obsessional level takes up the burden. Obsessional primacy, Glover relates to the eighteen months, three and one-half year average development level. The obsessional neurosis serves to conceal the fact that, but for its activities, there would never be any advance for any child out of the normal “pan-psychosis” of the first year. This is the general thesis. As originally postulated, with the Œdipus complex formulations and polymorphous perverse fixation states, plus unknown constitutional factors, the entire galaxy of mental distortions fell into some orderly system. But time and analystic study has shown that these formulations were a bit facile; “this etiological system threatened to become sterile and unilluminating” is Glover's appraisal. He would look for more “specific factors” in two directions (a) certain more or less stable combinations of endopsychic factors and (b) environmental stimuli, if any, associated exclusively with the particular form of neurosis under investigation. He would try to discover (1) what specific forms of affect or combinations of affect are defended against by the symptoms—fusions and defusions of affect as well as fusions and defusions of instinct; (2) what specific mechanisms or combinations of mechanisms are exploited, in particular symptom formations; (3) what developmental phases are reflected or caricatured by the symptom-construction. Three methods of research are thus suggested, the last being the most comprehensive, yet all being of service. Ideations, speech and behavioristic end-products stand out for separate appraisal and can be subdivided in accordance with the amount of psychic distance interposed between instinct-derivations and their expression. True clinical obsessional neuroses and those more or less universal minor

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obsessional manifestations offer the material. In the ideational series one studies aggressive images, sexual images, individually socially important images, trivial social images and more or less nonsensical images. Each of these has positive and negative phases, wherein displacement and substitution serve as instinctual defences but reactions of guilt associated with forbidden thoughts and actions, anxieties or panics when ritual is neglected and emotional impoverishments have also to be accounted for. The author holds that the elaborate thought, speech and action rituals are highly sophisticated end-products, covering up the primary essential affective state of rather simple ideational content and having one feature in common—“a drive to rapid alternation of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ affective states.” The complicated rituals arising provide an even more complicated meshwork through which affect may pass in a finely divided state. Ego object-subject relations must be sought for. Regression is a complicated process, a strategic withdrawal to an earlier level. These antiquated defence methods give rise to a rich assortment of symptoms and adaptive peculiarities. Primitive introjections and projections are interwoven and reinforced by the exploitation of displacement mechanisms. Attention is called to the importance of Melanie Klein's observations on young children's phantasies which in part bridge the gap between Freud's earlier (and still valid) theories of the primitive ego, and clinical analyses of three to five year old children. These phantasies show that the child regards its body as a sort of playground for warring and for loving organs (inside and outside) and also regards external objects (parents) similarly. Life is a series of battles between these compound egos and compound objects. No abstract can do justice to this highly original complicated paper, hence a recommendation to read its original.

2.   Klein, M. Pathogenesis of Manic-Depressive States.—(This article is already abstracted from Internationale Zeitschrift f. Psychoanalyse, Vol. 23, No. 2. See p. 240 this issue.)

3.   Behn-Eschenburg, H. Antecedents of the Œdipus Complex.—-The Œdipus complex formulation remains valid but more and more attention has been demanded to elucidate its antecedents as such recur in actual practice, so that the formulation requires further differentiation, especially as to its developmental time periods, as Melanie Klein's fruitful studies have indicated and as Freud has recently suggested especially in regard to the mother-fixation in women. Hence this paper on infants’ analysis with the object in view of clarifying the “feminine change of object,” to the author the most salient point. Change of aim may also be brought into clearer focus. The material is taken from a diary kept by the child's mother and is therefore direct behavior observation rather than a purely analytic study. The girl was two and one-half years old

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when the wish to supplant the mother was evident; thus object choice may occur as early as this. Even at the age of seventeen months when naked at the seaside she observed a naked boy for the first time and her behavior indicated then, and more markedly two months later, aim discrimination and aggressive hostile tendencies against the mother (breast) and markedly impulsive activities of jealousy. Hence the author's conclusions that the Œdipus complex may be crystallized at this early age and that the pre-œdipal, Œdipal and post-œdipal phases coexist, interact and commingle to a greater extent than is usually held at the present time.

4.   Sharpe, E. F. Unconscious Determinants for Sublimations in Pure Art and Science. This paper would offer some notes concerning those sublimations which turn to pure art and pure science, by “pure” meaning inner creative urges, with no “practical” end looking for wealth or ease. Art is an ordering of emotional experience, science the observation and classification of external facts. In the former introjection and projection are the major mechanisms involved, the first introjection being milk, the first projection urine and feces, around which “good” and “bad” image cathexes take place. The artist retains a great deal of these original values. A pure perception sees, feels in perspective without “rules” and with no desire due to anxiety. Newton was probably not hungry at his apple-gravity episode. Sublimation of art arises before the acquisition of speech. In poetry, for example, words have an objective sensuous significance before they become mediums of communication. By manipulation of sound, gesture, water, paint, words the pure artist communicates his emotional experiences in the progressive development of the bodily powers. The criterion of genius is the consistent ability to follow the drive even to the verge of starvation, just as the child would starve if not supported. The common problem in both “pure art” and “pure science” is the preservation of the good object and of the self against the inner destructive forces of aggression; the artist recaptures the good loving image; the scientist achieves victory by knowing, which becomes as much a substitute for early intuitive gratifications as the looking and hearing of the artist. In analysis the phantasies of both are much alike. An interesting, instructive paper and well worth reading in the original.

5.   Bergler, E. The “Material Phenomenon.” The writer first exposes what he considers the fallacies of Silberer's studies in symbolism, the correctness of whose observations are not in dispute, but whose interpretations are rejected while no cogent explanation for the rejection are forthcoming. Bergler would supply explanations, citing for examples similar patterns. These all have typical structure: Consciously not acceptable Id wishes repressed by the superego with distressing

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reproach are discharged in the dream picture, which contains a double stream of traffic (Jekels and Bergler) of erotic and death instincts. Comparisons of these examples lead to the conclusions that factors which separate Silberer's material phenomenon are: (1) a greater prominence of “symbolic equivalents” (Jones), (2) “peripheral experience,” and that (3) their relation is to a specific type of dream, namely, the anxiety dream. Thus the material phenomenon is found to be an equivalent of the anxiety dream and connected with the affect of terror.

6.   Hermann, I. “Active” and Masculinity.—These terms are correlated in psychoanalytic literature and often, it is suggested, incorrectly. The writer believes that the only libido is male libido and concludes that the equation masculine-active has no sufficient basis and is not susceptible of proof. Men and women are equally, though differently, active in their sexuality. A woman cannot be analyzed successfully on the postulate that her activity in her sexual life indicates that she is “masculine.”

(Vol. XVI, Part 3)

1.   Jones, Ernest. Early Female Sexuality. 263.

2.   Schilder, Paul. Psycho-analysis of Space. 274.

3.   Oberndorf, C. P. The Genesis of the Feeling of Unreality. 296.

4.   Schmideberg, Melitta. Reassurance as a Means of Analytic Technique. 307.

5.   Bonaparte, Marie. Passivity, Masochism and Femininity. 325.

6.   Loewenstein, R. Phallic Passivity in Men. 334.

7.   Yates, Sybille. Some Aspects of the Difficulties of Time and Their Relation to Music. 341.

8.   Schilder, Paul, and Wechsler, David. What Does the Child Know of the Interior of the Body. 355.

1.   Jones, E. Early Female Sexuality.—The first of a series of exchange lectures between London and Vienna analysts, which would correlate slight divergences in viewpoint on the early development of sexuality and other issues. The present paper would take up this main theme as pertaining to female sexual development: Is the female as masculine as has been supposed? Jones supports first the a priori biological feminine pattern; the early years of the girl's fixation on the mother is in need of more intensive study. The early analyses of Melanie Klein tend to show that the girl is more feminine than masculine, being typically receptive and acquisitive. Her endeavor is to get the things out of the mother which the child wants so badly, then, disillusioned, out of something better than the mother's nipples—out

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of the clitoris, leading to penis envy, the first wish for a kind of penis being induced by oral frustration. In the second half of the first year the personality of the father plays an increasingly important role; desire for his sexual organ beginning to conflict with the girl's relationship to the mother; a sadistic attitude toward the contents of the mother's body leads to a sense of guilt. The task of coping with this sadism is much greater in the girl than in the boy because the boy has another personal lightning conductor for his sadism and hate, namely his sexual rival, the father. The girl has as sexual rival only the mother, on whom, as infant, she was dependent for all the libidinal needs of life; to destroy this object would be fatal, so that the sadism is pent up and turned inward. With vaginal erotization there is at the same time fear of it. The whole process is obscured (1) by phantasies concerning the wish for penis and baby, (2) by vaginal anxieties with outward displacements, the vagina being considered dangerous and to be hidden, (3) by the fact that the vagina has no physical function before menstruation and is inaccessible. The main facts to be explained are the young girl's desire for a penis and her resentment against her mother and the central difference between the London and Vienna viewpoints, in Jones’ opinion revolves about the early Œdipus complex ushered in by oral dissatisfaction. To him the London view seems more in accord with the ascertainable facts, than does one which would regard the girl's femininity to be the result of an external experience (viewing a penis). The ultimate question is whether a woman is born or made. The Viennese analysts would reproach the London analysts with estimating the early phantasy life too highly at the expense of external reality; the London analysts should answer that there is no danger of any analysts’ neglecting external reality, whereas it is always possible for them to underestimate Freud's doctrine of the importance of the psychical reality.

2.   Schilder, P. Psycho-analysis of Space.—See Psychoanalytic Review to follow.

3.   Oberndorf, C. P. The Genesis of the Feeling of Unreality.—The feeling of unreality and depersonalization is likely to occur when thought devoted to abstract processes is erotized. The impetus to interest in thinking is the desire to acquire a weapon of offence and defence against the hated parent. The feeling of unreality sets in when an attempt is made to repress such abstract thinking as incompatible with the thought (and action) considered normal for the sex of the individual. The repression and the resultant loss of the repressed part of the personality give to the patient the feeling that he is not himself—that is, he has become unreal. In illustration of

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this condition the case of a woman patient is described. This patient with strong indentification with the father, a chemist of national reputation had found her real existence in sharing his scientific interests, i.e., in erotizing thought as father substitute. The feeling of unreality began as a circumscribed symptom when she first thought of becoming engaged, at nineteen years of age and the renunciation of her masculine identification was pending. Oberndorf offers interpretations specific to the case and some general reflections: (1) The embarrassment and confusion (guilty pleasure) of the patient when complimented on her mentality is due to the fact that the mental function represents to her masculinity, against the revelation of which she seeks to protect herself. (2) The state of unreality results from the repression of the alien portion of the erotized superego in conflict with the ego, and the loss leaves the personality with a feeling of unrealness. (3) Unreality economically represents a compromise or partial suicide, a half-death of the ego and a sequestration or partial annihilation of the libido. A close relationship exists between unreality, the feeling of stupidity and the deepest forms of thought block. Embarrassment in society, the original complaint of both the patient and her husband, is due to a conflict as to which portion of the superego, a masculine or feminine should direct the actions of the ego in social situations. The increase in neurosis in general may well be associated with the necessity on the part of man today to repress his unconscious sadistic impulses which probably have not diminished appreciably over the course of time and are more apt to take the form of thinking than of doing, with greater libidinization of the organ of thought.

4.   Schmideberg, M. Reassurance as a Means of Analytic Technique.—Discussing the problem of reassurance in its various aspects Schmideberg deals with the arguments of those who are opposed to its use in analysis. Reassurance should in the first place be a help to the ego. If the patient is unable to deal with his anxiety owing to lack of satisfactory defences, the analyst should temporarily lend them to him. Reassurance as a method of dosing anxiety is specially important with patients who suffer from intense anxiety and may prevent dangerous results in reality—attempts at suicide or aggravation, in psychotic border cases. Reassurance may be avoided if the anxiety is resolved by interpretation, but it may be that the analyst does not see all the important factors at once. The value of reassurance is similar to that of narcosis in surgery; it makes the operation less painful to the patient and allows easier working for the physician. Schmideberg emphasizes her practice of always analyzing the anxiety, the effects of the reassurance and the patient's feeling about the reassurance given, so that the patient always consciously understands the motives for

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giving and not giving a certain type of reassurance; the art of giving the right sort of reassurance at the right moment is not easier than that of giving the right interpretation. The possibility that reassurance might increase the repression seems the most serious argument against its use. The fact that pseud-analysts use reassurance instead of interpretation, or use it in a wrong way, should not prevent its correct use.

5.   Bonaparte, M. Passivity, Masochism and Femininity.—Bonaparte discusses erotic pleasure in women, saying that woman's share in sexual pleasure seems to be derived from whatever virility the female organism contains. In females there are two erotogenic zones and woman is bisexual in a far higher degree than man, the external sexual organs reflecting her twofold nature. A woman in fact possesses a cloaca, divided by the recto-vaginal septum into the anus and the specifically feminine vagina, the gateway to the additional structure of the maternal apparatus, and besides a phallus, atrophied in comparison with the male penis—the little clitoris. The manner in which these two zones react on the little girl's constitution and upon her psychosexuality is described; an oral phase of earliest infancy is succeeded by the sadistic-anal phase, which in view of the anatomical fact of the existence of the vagina in little girls, Bonaparte prefers to call the sadistic-cloacal phase. There is therefore a cavity and in the little girl's sadistic conception of coitus she fears it may be penetrated with consequent injury, a fear which is exaggerated when coitus is observed at an early age. The result of an early experience of this sort is the mobilization (1) of the erotic wish for the penis, coveted by the oral and cloacal libidinal components, and (2) of the dread of harmful penetration, leading the little girl through fright to reject her passive role. When this is the case the ego draws back from male aggression and her erotism will cling to the clitoris, being diverted into a channel where life is not endangered. Thus a sort of convex erotic engram, upon which her erotic function as a woman will be modeled, is set up in opposition to the concave erotic engram which is properly that of the female in coitus: the vital (self-preservative) rejection of the feminine role and the masculine rejection coincide. Moral repression, on the other hand, which has its source in educational influences and is maintained by the superego attacks feminine sexuality as a whole and tends to result in total frigidity. In order that the vital ego may accept erotic passivity consonant with ideal adaptation to her biological erotic function, a woman must have rid herself of the infantile fear originating in a sadistic conception of coitus.

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7.   Yates, Sybille. Some Aspects of Time Difficulties and Their Relation to Music.—Yates connects the “time sense” with bodily demands and satisfactions, with the rhythm of intake and excretory functions. Where there has been complication in feeding times in infants there will also be complications in the next “time” series, the excretory function. In illustration she cites a partially completed analysis of a patient, a teacher of music, who had chosen music as her life interest because of its connection with rhythm and time. The sublimation had broken down and the dreams and other material brought out in the analysis turned constantly about the themes of repetition and time. The patient's early experiences with the mother, who had no conception of time, led her to look upon time as precious, as a substance that must be conserved and could be wasted. This idea was connected in the patient's unconscious with the offering and denial of the mother's milk. From these and like emotionally invested connections discovered in the analysis the conclusions are drawn (1) that the fundamental appreciation of time and rhythm originates in a pattern laid down at the breast period, when the body supplies the rhythm; (2) where there is a gross disharmony between the child's and the mother's time, a degree of aggression is aroused which influences all subsequent time relationships, passing on to the relationship of work and pleasure and to sublimations as a whole; (3) that it is essential for achievement in any sublimation involving creative activity for a certain tension of repetition and climax to be reached and that the result of sublimation depends on the pattern of demand and satisfaction first laid down in infancy.

8.   Schilder, P., and Wechsler, D. What Do Children Know About the Interior of Their Body?—A systematic questioning of 40 children from four to thirteen years of age was undertaken to determine what light an inquiry into children's knowledge about the interior of their body might throw on psychoanalytic problems. The typical answer of younger children was that the body contained the food recently eaten. The answers in general indicated the concrete nature of childish thinking. The subject of sex was evaded. When adults shut their eyes they perceive the body simply as a heavy mass—an experience suggesting the morula stage of embryonic evolution, whereas the child's picture of the interior of the body corresponds to the gastrula stage; they describe themselves as a kind of tubular bag, which simply receives everything put into it. Two children said that they themselves were under their skin and in this connection the writers mention a case where the patient thought that if her skin would only peel off she herself would be all right. They also cite popular expressions (jumping out of the skin, etc.) which indicate that the skin may be considered merely as the envelope of the true self.

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(Vol. XVI, Part 4)

1.   Alexander, Franz. The Logic of the Emotions and Its Dynamic Background. 399.

2.   Winterstein, Alfred, and Bergler, Edmund. The Psychology of Pathos. 414.

3.   Gross, Alfred. The Psychic Effects of Toxic and Toxoid Substances. 425.

4.   Eidelberg, Ludwig. A Suggestion for a Comparative Theory of the Neuroses. 439.

5.   Isaacs, Susan. “Bad Habits.” 446.

6.   Schmideberg, Melitta. “Bad Habits” in Childhood: Their Importance in Development. 455.

7.   Wittels, Fritz. A Type of Woman with a Three-Fold Love Life. 462.

8.   Wilson, G. W. The Analysis of a Transitory Conversion Symptom Simulating Pertussis. 474.

9.   Balint, Michael. A Contribution to Fetishism. 481.

1.   Alexander, F. The Logic of Emotions and Its Dynamic Background.—Alexander likens emotional cause and effect to intellectual. Just as logical thinking is based on intellectual syllogisms the “logic of emotions” consists of a series of emotional syllogisms. The logic of intellectual thinking is the crystallized product of external experiences; the logic of emotions is crystallized in the same way out of internal. Fear and guilt as results of aggressiveness; envy as outgrowth of the feeling of inadequacy; such self-evident emotional connections as “I hate him because he attacks me” are called emotional syllogisms. Depriving these emotional sequences of their ideational content and paying attention to the dynamic quality (direction of the tendencies which participate) simple dynamic relations similar to those in physics and chemistry are arrived at. In many of these emotional syllogisms a striking feature is a certain reciprocal action, giving a polarity to mental life which can be compared with the law of action and reaction in physics. In the investigation of psychogenic organic disturbances it has proved of great value to study psychic processes according to their general dynamic direction (vector quality) while temporarily ignoring the manifold variety of their ideational content and analyses of apparently unrelated psychic factors show that they have one important feature in common, namely the direction of the general dynamic tendency expressed by them, and it was observed that this general dynamic quality of the psychological content determines which kind of organic function will be disturbed by it. For example the stomach functions can be disturbed by one of the following group of repressed wishes: the wish to receive help, love, money, a gift, a child, or the wish to castrate, to steal, to take away something. The same group of wishes may also

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disturb other organic functions which involve incorporation such as the inspiratory phase of breathing or the act of swallowing. The common feature of all these different tendencies is their centripetal direction. Another dynamic quality of similar importance is the eliminating tendency and a third, the significance of which has become evident in gastrointestinal neuroses, is that of retention. The three main classes of tendencies express fundamental urges, whereas six subclasses are more complex tendencies which express not only direction but also a certain attitude (love or hate) toward external objects. These general trends are given in schematic form:

Vector-Analysis of Psychic Tendencies

Tendencies classified according to their fundamental dynamic quality (direction) Tendencies in relation to objects.
Incorporation To receive.
  To take.
Elimination To give a value.
  To eliminate in order.
  To attack.
Retention To retain in order to build up.
  To withhold from others.

The equilibrium between the three vector quantities, intaking, eliminating, and retaining is biologically conditioned and represents the fundamental dynamics of the biological process “life.” Emotional syllogisms are their reflection in consciousness and these trends may be understood and described both in psychological and in biological terms. The most important regulator of the balance between intaking, eliminating and retentive tendencies is genital sexuality. It constitutes a potent means of drainage for those fundamental psychodynamic urges which cannot find relief in social relations (sublimations). Alexander is convinced that this draining function of genital sexuality is responsible for the central significance of genital disturbances in the etiology of neuroses and psychogenic organ disturbances. Both the genital and the voluntary muscular systems are concerned in the external policies of the organism in contrast to the vegetative organs which manage the organism's internal affairs.

2.   Winterstein, A., and Bergler, E. The Psychology of Pathos.—See Psychoanalytic Review to follow.

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3.   Gross, A. The Psychic Effects of Toxic and Toxoid Substances.—In view of the confusions and contradictions discovered in the toxic and toxoid results produced upon the psyche by analgesics, stimulants and narcotics, Gross seeks some common factor amongst them all for some systematic explanation of this diversity. He finds what he terms “the primary toxic process,” namely, a psychic process is either set going or brought to a standstill, accelerated or retarded. If the full implications of transmutation of energy in the psyche had been given consideration the psychology of addiction would have been driven to very different conclusions. Uninstructed opinion imagines that the toxic substance actually generates this energy. Psychiatrists (amongst other people) share in this error when they persist in the notion of therapy by means of deprivation, the fallacy involved being that, in order to cure a patient, the poison must be got out of his system. According to Gross’ contention the clinical phenomena of addiction as well as of innumerable other phenomena associated with the daily use of toxic substances, are produced by the energy inherent in the psychic apparatus (and by variations in this energy), the substance incorporated acting simply as a means of effecting displacements of endopsychic energy. Taking the variability into account the peculiar phenomenon of the weakening of the action of a toxic substance is explained (Rado's “diminishing degree of intoxication”) which with the regularity of a natural law occurs whenever there is an abuse of such substances and even, in most instances, when habitual use is made of their more harmless surrogates. Further it explains the paradoxical wish for abstinence experienced by many addicts, as if the addict felt that only by abstinence he can recapture the enjoyment for which he longs. Gross concludes that fundamentally the foreign substance is simply the vehicle of displacement and transmutation, and that the flow of inherent psychic energy is liable to exhaustion within some period of time and is renewed only with the passage of time.

4.   Eidelberg, L. A Suggestion for a Comparative Theory of the Neuroses.—As a guide in cases of neuroses which take the form, not of clear cut definite types, but of a medley of heterogeneous symptoms, a scheme is worked out on lines suggested by Waelder's paper on the “Principle of Multiple Function” (see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 23, April, 1936, page 209). In illustration of his proposed scheme he separates the conversion symptoms from the phobias in the “Wolf Man.” He points out that the presence of these two series of defences is due to the fact that they are defences against a fusion of different impulses, tender ones toward the mother and aggressive, toward the father. In regard to cases where the two instincts—Eros and Thanatos—appear he recalls what Freud says in Civilization and Its Discontents: “When an instinctual trend undergoes repression, its libidinal elements are transformed into symptoms and its aggressive components into a sense of

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guilt.” Anxiety, he finds, ranges itself with the phobias, in that neurotic anxiety is a danger signal against the person's own aggression, and, amending Freud's statement suggests that the aggressive components are converted into “a sense of guilt or anxiety.”

5.   Isaacs, H. “Bad Habits.”—Where children indulge in certain actions referred to as “bad habits” such as thumb-sucking, masturbation, body jigging, head knocking, eating strange objects, drinking in strange ways, etc., the function of the habit seems to be the attainment of internal psychic equilibrium by mastering anxiety. A simple classification of these various habits on the basis of the bodily parts or libidinal zones involved does not carry one very far, the degree of compulsiveness of any of these habits and of the anxiety shown if the habit is interfered with being clearly a more significant factor in prognosis as it reveals the degree of aggressiveness present. There seems to be little doubt that in all these early bodily actions the mechanism of introjection must play a profound part, and it is probable that the child's relation to his internal objects (whether part or whole) is the major key to all these “bad habits.” Among the various habits, those that involve either the action of the whole body, as in jigging or rocking movements, or of the head in banging or knocking, are very interesting theoretically. In one case of masturbation in the form of violent movements of the body the writer finds that there was obviously a reproduction with almost complete verisimilitude of the father's part in observed coitus. In a case of head knocking it would seem that there was not only introjection of the father in sadistic coitus, but a more complicated problem of displacement from the genitals or bowels to the head. It would be useful to have further evidence on the frequency with which experience confirms the impression that children who take to these body movements or head knocking have shared their parents’ room and are likely to have seen parental coitus.

6.   Schmideberg, M. “Bad Habits” in Childhood; Their Importance in Development.—Clinically bad habits are of phobic or obsessional nature and serve to protect against psychotic anxiety. For example a child fusses over being dressed because it equates this with a dangerous introjection or feels imprisoned in, or attacked by, the clothing. In those “bad habits” which may be regarded as perversions the cure is achieved by libidinization; in those regarded as asocial activities the cure is by flight into reality and aggression. Bad habits then help the child to deal with its psychotic anxieties in a non-psychotic way and thus further the sense of reality in a way similar to that described by Edward Glover in perversion formation. The main cures for the early psychotic anxieties are: (a) libidinal gratification (physiological activities, perverse and genital gratification, and bad habits of perverse type); (b) normal and abnormal muscular activity (physical games and

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a number of bad habits included under this heading); (c) aggressive acts; (d) habits relating to food, clothing, toys, etc., representing part-objects; (e) full object relations. The importance of bad habits in overcoming early psychotic anxieties and in promoting the development of reality-sense explains why efforts to suppress bad habits are so frequently frustrated and why the habits often persist even into adult life. The effort should be made to suppress the habit but diminish the underlying anxiety and provide a suitable cure, preferably in terms of part-objects.

7.   Wittels, Fritz. A Type of Woman with Three-fold Love Life. Wittels calls to mind Freud's statement that women can arrange their destiny in three different ways: (1) sex inhibition; (2) masculinization; (3) acceptance of the feminine rôle, and notes that some women manifest all three reaction formations concurrently. He recounts in detail the analysis of a women of this type. When the patient, Gloria, came for treatment, she possessed three men, who can be grouped in the sense of the categories described by Freud. With one lover she experienced raptures without love—it was solely a corporeal affair, a Messalina-like relationship; with a second she was united in a sacrificial love (mother rôle); with her husband she enjoyed true companionship, but as a sex partner he was taboo. In this woman's life the castration fear had been emphasized by various circumstances; frigidity to begin with; tearing of the genitalia during parturition; sterilization; feeble mindedness and death of her child. The result of her experiences was the split. A second case is briefly described and the relation of sterility to this deviation in the sexual destiny of women is noted.

8.   Wilson, G. W. Analysis of a Transitory Conversion Symptom Simulating Pertussis. This case is offered as an example of extreme condensation of unconscious tendencies. A patient developed a pertussis-like cough while in all probability had some organic basis in a slight bronchial irritation, but was exaggerated by psychic factors and served the purpose of expressing a variety of interwoven unconscious tendencies. The bisexual significance is particularly conspicuous; it expressed both identification with his mother in her receptive rôle (fellatio) and identification with the analyst and his father (potent coughing). Furthermore, it was a means of obtaining attention and sympathy as well as serving exhibitionistic tendencies; finally, as an expression of illness, it was a source of suffering and thus satisfied the need for punishment.

9.   Bálint, M. A Contribution on Fetishism. Bálint shows parallels between kleptomania and fetichism. He believes that both these perversions rest on the same psychological basis, only in the case of kleptomania the chief stress is laid on the seizure itself and in transvestitim on the putting on, and hiding in, the clothes.

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Article Citation

Willard, C. and Jelliffe, S.E. (1939). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(2):270-286

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