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Schilder, P. (1939). The Psychology of Schizophrenia. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(3):380-398.

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(3):380-398

The Psychology of Schizophrenia

Paul Schilder, M.D., Ph.D.

In every field of scientific research it is advisable to review from time to time the facts, assumptions and theories and to evaluate them anew. Such an endeavor concerning the psychology of schizophrenia is the more advisable since the insulin shock therapy and the metrazol therapy have besides their doubtless practical value great theoretical interest since they have put the schizophrenic as an organism before new tasks.

One is entitled to say that the modern psychology of schizophrenia is based upon the efforts of Freud, Bleuler, Jung and their associates. One should not forget that Bleuler's approach and Freud's approach are in many respects opposed to each other. According to Bleuler, the basic disturbance of schizophrenia is an organically determined change in the associations. Manfred Bleuler characterizes the disturbance in the associations in the following way: 1. Two unrelated ideas in the patient's mind are connected. 2. Several different ideas are combined by condensation. 3. Symbols are liberally used. 4. General notions are used instead of concrete statements. 5-6. The associations are determined often by alliterations and “mediate” associations. In mediate associations the train of thoughts is determined by unimportant partial identities in the material.

On

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