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Willard, C. (1939). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(3):416-430.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(3):416-430

International Journal of Psycho-Analysis

Clara WillardAuthor Information

(Vol. XVII, Part 1)

1.   Schmideberg, Melitta. A Note on Suicide. 1.

2.   Menninger, Karl A. Purposive Accidents as an Expression of Self-Destructive Tendencies. 6.

3.   Searl, M. N. Infantile Ideals. 17.

4.   Benedek, Therese. Dominant Ideas and Their Relation to Morbid Cravings. 40.

5.   Jekels, Ludwig. The Psychology of the Festival of Christmas. 57.

6.   Berg, Charles. The Unconscious Significance of Hair. 73.

7.   Wälder, Robert. The Problem of Freedom in Psycho-Analysis and the Problem of Reality-Testing. 89.

8.   Stephen, Adrian. “Hateful,” “Awful,” “Dreadful.” 109.

1.   Schmideberg, M. A Note on Suicide. As the psychoanalytic study of suicide advances attention has been more or less withdrawn from the exclusively sexual symbolic significance of death and dying and from death as punishment for forbidden sexual impulses and the importance of aggression has been more and more emphasized; the view gained prevalence (Freud, Abraham, Glover) that the aggression had been turned against the self, both self and the hated incorporated object being annihilated by the self-destructive act, while at the same time death was the punishment for the wish to kill. Admitting the importance of aggression, Schmideberg is nevertheless impressed by the role which the libidinal impulses play. She asks: “Is there a genuine wish for death?” What first appears to be a manifestation of the “death instinct,” a wish to die, is found on analysis to be really a way of dealing with the fear of dying; it is not the “death instinct” which drives a person to suicide, but strong emotional disturbances—especially anxiety—which interfere with the self-preserving instinct. Falling in love is a normal “cure” for paranoid anxieties and depression mechanisms which lead to suicide. The “good objects” and good parts of self are projected on/ the loved person who is a help against all dangers, including death: by idealizing the person loved all feelings of distrust, sadism, etc., are counteracted. There are many substitutes for suicide. Every action which implies giving up an old life and starting a new one, especially obsessional traveling, sexual promiscuity and prostitution, breaking off the analysis, going to prison, are unconsciously linked up with suicidal phantasies. The same is true of fainting, hysterical fits, and various other ways of denying reality.

2.   Menninger, K. A. Purposive Accidents as an Expression of Self-Destructive

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Tendencies.

Evidence as to motives and devices of focal self-destruction is found in the study of “accidents” which upon analysis prove to have been unconsciously purposive. The significant and differential thing about purposive accidents is that the ego refuses to accept the responsibility for the self-destruction. In one year the writer was able to collect, without the aid of a clipping bureau, four instances of this remarkable phenomenon. A man plans a trap for another unknown man, usually a thief or a burglar. He sets the trap to protect his home property, forgets that he has done so, returns after an interval, goes into the place he has so carefully protected and is himself killed or wounded. It is not sufficient to indicate that these accidents serve an unconscious purpose. It is essential to know exactly what purpose; this can only be inferred from the newspaper accounts, while the psycho-analytically studied cases reveal precisely how the accident serves to punish the individual for guilty acts or wishes. Menninger himself studied a patient who had had twenty-four major disasters in his life, including, for example, the accidental poisoning of his own child and three successive automobile accidents at the same spot, in which each time his car was entirely demolished. He wrecked successively eleven automobiles. It was possible to discover that his guilt arose in part from terrific unconscious wishes to kill certain members of his family. The motives discovered by analysis include the elements of aggression, punition and propitiation with death as the occasional but exceptional outcome.

3.   Searl, M. N. Infantile Ideals. In Searl's sense “ideal” means the absolute, the unqualified and total ideal. This ideal in which everything reaches one's highest conception of it is naturally the more nearly and easily attainable the more limited our “everything” is—hence in infancy. The smallest infant has certainly some kind of awareness of the difference between happiness and unhappiness, pleasure and pain, comfort and discomfort, content and discontent—whichever pair of words best suits his type of awareness and contrasting states. Compared with a positive absolute ideal, Searl defines a negative ideal and in illustration describes infant behavior: in his attacks of extreme rage the infant's temporary ideal, the height of his desire may well be the most complete aggression and destruction. Yet if there were nothing but aggression and destruction he obviously could not live at all. The negative ideal, then, must be limited and secondary as compared with the positive absolute ideal. With these explanations he arrives at the concepts of the super-ego and the ego-ideal, finding that the ego-ideal, as positive, is uncomplicated by negative feelings and anxiety and is never in conflict with the ego; the pre-ambivalent attitude in which both positive and negative ideals originate is connected with lack of experience of time and the

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child's struggle is to maintain a strength and vividness to counter negative ideals based on very violent emotions. The writer gives case material to indicate some of the effects of this struggle at the time of fusion of the two ideals and of attempts at defusion. He outlines the genesis of these ideals and says that in the formation of the positive ideal the desire for complete satisfaction and happiness is involved, becoming the foundation of the social attitude “I can only be perfectly happy when those in my environment are happy too.” In the early stages the negative ideal tends to have sharper definition, in accordance with the infant's more powerful exertion of strength in his states of rage and anxiety than in those of happiness. The “ego-ideal” (Freud's first “super-ego”) even allowing for the negative elements in it, would, it seems to the writer, naturally be formed later than a super-ego in which negative elements predominate. The writer sees no reason why the infantile need to dominate by aggressive negative forces should be perpetuated under the name of super-ego. The true final super-ego should surely be the ego-ideal in the positive sense of the term, and the negative should be the sub-ego; or in accordance with Freud's rejection of the term subconscious, it might be better to use the words positive and negative ideals.

4.   Benedek, T. Dominant Ideas and Their Relation to Morbid Cravings. In connection with the work of Rado (see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 18, Page 69) and others on the processes at work in morbid cravings, Benedek describes a case at length, in which the primary morbid process—repression followed by regression—led to repudiation by the subject of her female body. This repudiation was kept in force by means of an imperative which manifested itself in the formula “You are not to eat and thus have the body of a woman.” Interest centers on the question where the idea found its intrinsic energy and what means it employed to dominate the personality and bring about its ruin with such merciless and unyielding persistence. In elucidation Benedek refers to an old psychiatric conception which has received no attention from psychoanalysis, that of a “dominant idea.” The dominant idea is distinguishable from its obsessional-neurotic counterpart in that it answers to a more profound regression, one which has brought about an alteration in the ego; it does not, like psychotic regression, result in an alteration of the environment, but only an ego-alteration. The driving force in the case here discussed is a monosymptomatic psychosis in the form of an idea, which automatically heightens oral instinctual tension and so leads to addiction. This case, however, is to be regarded merely as a specific type of addiction; in other cases, the depression leading to addiction will be supported on instinctual conflicts whose structure is different. Here the super-ego character of the “dominant idea” first determines the depression with oral implications

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and at another stage enforces oral gratification, thus releasing addiction in the form of a symptom with two phases. The mechanism active in all addiction is the effort to master the tension of conflict endo-psychically. This obliges the mental apparatus to establish a connection with the environment, and the path along which it does so (in contrast with the paranoid process) is from without inwards. Quite independently of the nature of the neurotic or psychotic process which maintains the preliminary depression, repeated attempts are made in addiction to resolve inward disquiet by incorporation. The discharge of the emotional tension arising out of the primary instinctual conflict, or due to the primary symptom, takes place autoplastically, an attempt being made to effect an alteration in the ego by means of the drug-which is taken from the external world and incorporated in the ego. The path of incorporation is oral and is favored by the regression to the oral stage.

5.   Jekels, L. The Psychology of the Festival of Christmas. To indicate the parallel between the purposes underlying the symbolism of the Christmas festival and psychic mechanism of the son's rivalry with the father, established beyond all possibility of doubt by analytic experiences with neurotic patients, Jekels traces the evolution of the Christmas observances. The date, December 25, is significant, being that of the Winter solstice. This day—this natalis Solis invicti—is the birthday of the Unconquered One, and the celebration of this date seems to have been taken over by the Romans from the Oriental cult of the sun. It is the period when the old sun of the past year changes into a new young sun. There is strong- resemblance between the Roman celebration and our own, and Jekels finds that the true meaning of the psychological purpose involved in the Christmas festival is the ousting of the old by the new. The establishment of Christmas followed the greatest doctrinal dispute which the Christian church has ever known, that is to say, the Arian controversy which began about thirty years before Christmas was first observed and was terminated about thirty years later, simply by a decree of the Emperor Theodosius the Great. The conflict of opinions was, above all, as to the nature of Jesus and as to His equality with God. The spiritual and mental atmosphere in which this controversy arose is found in the conception of sin and in some sort reflects the endo-psychic perception of a state in which one part of the personality, the ego, is called to account—as it were, indicted—by another part, the super-ego. The meaning underlying the celebration of the nativity amounted to nothing less than a rejoicing at the success of the attempt to dethrone God, the collective super-ego. The passionate interest of the people in the theological controversy was but the expression of their revolt against God, a revolt arising out of despair and a sense of guilt. Jekels mentions in this connection the Saturnalia

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which at one time ended on December 17 and was removed to a later date. A characteristic feature of this celebration was a temporary equality between masters and servants; the relation was sometimes actually reversed, so that slaves were served as lords.

6.   Berg, C. The Unconscious Significance of Hair. From the most primitive times, Berg notes, man has given much time to various forms of interference with hair. Citing dreams of neurotic patients in regard to hair and examples from ordinary life, he seeks to systematize conclusions to be drawn under the headings of ego, super-ego and id functions, showing an intrusion of the id and super-ego into the domains of the ego. He finds that the conventional hair-behavior, the periodic cuttings, the daily hair brushings and particularly the daily shave are present-day ritual symptoms exactly analogous to many savage and ancient customs—for example, the subincision ceremony of the Arundas. It has been shown by Roheim that the Arunda ceremony is a social symptom that serves the purpose of expressing dramatically their castration anxiety; the Arundas by their subincision ceremony cathect the castration complex and avoid character changes. A castration complex that was not cathected would produce character changes, that is, would achieve its cathexis in character modification. We have no subincision ceremony but achieve similar results by our custom of shaving and hair-cutting. Thus our preoccupation with the unsolved primitive past has found its way into our modern civilized life in a way, which by virtue of its symbolism, ensures it against any likelihood of solution. Berg asks: “Is this normality; to go on repeating our old struggles with obsessional persistence until death overtakes us and ends the matter with a final castration?”

7.   Wälder, R. The Problem of Freedom, in Psycho-Analysis and the Problem of Reality-Testing.

It is not the writer's intention to enter into a metaphysical discussion, nor to debate the problem of free will; the problem to be investigated is the purely psychological one of freedom from something, say freedom from affects or anxiety, or freedom for something, say freedom for coping with a task set before one. Anyone afflicted with an obsessional neurosis and acting under a compulsion is psychologically not free; if he is freed from his compulsion, he will have acquired a measure of freedom. Freedom in its most general sense seems to consist in not being tied down to the biological situation and to the environment. Translating this into the familiar idiom of psychoanalytical terminology, it is found that this rising above one's self, self-scrutiny, self-appraisement and self-elimination, which bring with them the possession of a world transcending an environment bound to perceptual and instinctual life—are functions of the super-ego which has long come to be recognized as a grade of the ego. It would appear

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that there are three aspects of the problem of freedom: the formal function of his super-ego lifts man above things; at the same time, owing to his perceptions and affects, he stands in their very midst, absorbed in them, but besides this, he finds himself face to face with them. We can therefore speak of a threefold freedom. Commensurate with these three aspects of freedom there is a threefold derangement of it: failure of the super-ego's function, over-absorption in affects, loss of freedom in relation to objects, representing three great realms of psychopathology—asymbolia, neurosis, psychosis. On this attempted formulation it might be said that asymbolia has its abode in the super-ego, neurosis in the id, and psychosis in the ego. The aphasic patient will perhaps no longer be able to utter or comprehend the name of the lost object; for him the whole world extends no farther than the horizon of his immediate perceptions, his mind no longer reaches beyond them; unless a place can be found for them here, a thing ceases to exist. He has lost the category of the possible. The neurotic may react with a protracted period of mourning, or will perhaps develop a symptom which will allow the dead to survive in psychical reality expressive of his longing, or with feeling of guilt and so forth. He has at his disposal the category of the possible but he is absorbed by a part of his affective life. Lastly the psychotic will perhaps develop a delusion that the dead person is still alive, or will hallucinate his presence. He also has at his disposal the category of the possible, but he no longer distinguishes reality from possibility and mistakes a part of the world of possibility for reality. These examples show how fully one is entitled in all three cases to speak of a curtailment of freedom. Wilder believes that, proceeding from these ideas, an attempt could be made to outline the theoretical bases of psychoanalytical pedagogy. Preanalytical pedagogy recognizes only two ways of influencing a child (1) by associating one kind of conduct with pleasure and another with pain; at bottom the same method as applied by animal psychologists in maze training. Or (2) by holding up to the child an ideal, a hortative “shall.” The first method is animal and sub-human, the second divine and super-human; the one proper to animals, the other to God. In contradistinction to these, psychoanalytical pedagogy represents a beginning of a human pedagogy. It regards its object as a creature endowed with a measure, albeit a limited measure, of freedom present at the time, and tries to work with such freedom as is available and gradually to extend it.

8.   Stephen, A. “Hateful,” “Awful,” “Dreadful.” A philological discussion showing that in words connoting emotions, some contain no element of projection, others only an apparent element, and still others reversible elements or irreversible elements. Illustrative lists are given.

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(Vol. XVII, Part 2)

1.   Jones, Ernest. Obituary: M. D. Eder. 143.

2.   Laforgue, René. A Contribution to the Study of Schizophrenia. 147.

3.   Brierly, Marjorie. Specific Determinants in Feminine Development. 163.

4.   Bibring-Lehner, Grete. A Contribution to the Subject of Transference Resistance. 181.

5.   Weigert-Vowinckel, Edith. A Contribution to the Theory of Schizophrenia. 190.

6.   Rado, Sandor. Psycho-Analysis and Psychiatry. 202.

7.   Bàlint, Michael. The Final Goal of Psycho-Analytic Treatment. 206.

8.   Jeffreys, Harold. The Unconscious Significance of Numbers. 217.

1.   Jones, E. Obituary: M. D. Eder. An account of the life and writings of Dr. Eder, who was born in 1866 and died March 30, 1936.

2.   Laforgue, R. A Contribution to the Study of Schizophrenia. Laforgue describes a classical case of schizophrenia with flexibilitas cerea, negativism, refusal to eat, and repeated attempts at suicide. The young woman improved markedly under psychoanalytic treatment when, upon discovery of the patient's homosexual attachment to a mother substitute (an older sister), the analysis of this sister was also undertaken, with the result that a much better family adjustment was brought about.

3.   Brierly, M. Specific Determinants in Feminine Development. This paper is not an attempt at a thorough survey of infant development. The points stressed are the early stages at which integration begins, and the importance of these beginnings. The writer's clinical data have convinced her that whatever other objects may be differentiated in the suckling period, breast-nipple and milk objects are of primary importance. It seems probable that not only the pure oral ego-nucleus comes into being in relation to these objects, but that some of the earliest linkages between nuclei arise through their coordination upon these common objects. It seems essential to realize that it is no good looking for etiological constants in single factors, innate or environmental as such, but only in the effects of these registered in the structure of the developing ego-systems. The pattern of the earliest integrations may well define the ground plan of future development. This does not mean that we can afford to neglect the etiological significance of later happenings. There may easily turn out to be a chain-series of determinants operating in successive age-periods. But later events can only modify the effects already produced in the psyche by their predecessors

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and for this reason one should look to the earliest integrations and to all the conditions affecting them, external and internal, for the initial determinants. Whether it will ever be possible to collect enough data to define them with any certainty is another manner. With regard to specific suckling period determinants of feminine development suggestions are offered: (a) that the establishment of an oro-vaginal nucleus by activation of the vagina during pleasurable sucking predisposes to normal feminine development where it is not over-weighted by other factors; and (b) that the establishment of an oro-urethral nucleus under conditions which make urination a libidinal response will favor homosexual sublimation, but if this system is over-developed in relation to the oro-vaginal and oro-anal, and particularly where it is highly charged with sadism, it predisposes to overt homosexuality; (c) that a relative predominance of the oro-anal over the oro-urethral systems favors heterosexuality, though heterosexual development may be imperfect if the initial sadistic charges here are high.

5.   Weigert-Vowinckel, E. A Contribution to the Theory of Schizophrenia. The essential theme of this paper is the far-reaching disturbances to which the ego falls victim in catatonia. It is obvious that the psychiatrist concentrated his attention on the ego aspect of schizophrenic phenomena, whereas the psychoanalyst lays greater stress on the id aspect. Considering schizophrenic phenomena in one of their ego aspects, the psychomotor manifestations, the writer seeks to set forth points of view which show that psychiatry is here by no means far removed from psychoanalysis. Freud regards the ego's ability to perform its synthetic function as dependent on the state of libidinal equilibrium. Among psychiatrists too the failure of the “synthetic functions” of the ego is mentioned in a descriptive sense as an essential factor. Wernicke speaks of a “disintegration of the individuality,” “insufficiency of the real personality”; Janet of “abaissement du niveau mental,” etc. Jelliffe deserves the credit for having brought Head's concept of “vigilance” in line with psychoanalytic enquiry. On the basis of vital “vigilance” (or state of tension) in the central nervous system, purposive reactions of adaptation to external stimuli are found to occur even in decerebrate animals. The regulations of the conscious system transmitted by the cerebrum are replaced by automatic regulating mechanisms from deeper and phylogenetically earlier centers which possess the capacity to ecphorize ontogenetic and phylogenetic engrams. The automatic acts are conditioned by mnemonic schemes, patterns and internal attitudes. The psychiatrist Zutt summarized the primitive mechanisms

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underlying schizophrenic motor conditions in the concept of “internal attitudes”; they confront the ego as automatisms freed from its control. In the psychology of the normal individual also the ego and automatism stand in contrast to each other. Whenever it is a question of learning some skilled accomplishment, the ego acts as arbiter for all the impulses and inhibitions which together make up the aggregate of the movement. The ego's volition is confined to initiating the carrying-out of the movement which has been learnt, after which it hands over the direction of this to deeper regulating centers. The automatisms of schizophrenia are incapable of becoming conscious. Consequently the catatonic subject regards the automatisms which hold sway over him with a helpless sense of strangeness. Allied to the concept of an “internal attitude” is that of a “motor disposition,” as we find it applied by Schattnebrund, the neurologist, in a work to which Jelliffe again has called attention. By selective stimulation of the pallidostriatal system Schattenbrund produces, besides the amyostatic symptom-complex, certain motor dispositions which in their stagnancy are characteristic of Parkinsonism. The stagnancy and independence of such motor dispositions do not develop only in Parkinsonism; the “internal attitude” taking over the control from the ego may succeed in dominating the clinical picture in schizophrenia. Typical clinical pictures may well suggest that these attitudes, which so surprisingly shatter the framework of the personality as it existed originally, are determined by certain typical primary prototypes, conjured into existence by the downfall of the ego. In schizoid neurotic resistance, in the form of automatic attitudes, postures are discovered which represent a compromise between instinctual gratification and inhibition and curtail the ego's jurisdiction to a considerable extent. The power of these automatisms must be broken by analysis so that the ego may develop effectively in free communication with the id.

6.   Rado, S. Psycho-Analysis and Psychiatry. A review of the methods of psychoanalysis with special reference to the transference situation. Rado concludes that more than any other branch of personality research, psychoanalysis has advanced the psychiatrist towards the attainment of his foremost goal, that of being the efficiency engineer of the human mind. It has done so despite the fact that it has not as yet been in a position to embark upon the study of the psychoses on more than a very restricted scale.

7.   Bálint, M. The Final Goal of Psycho-Analytic Treatment. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, page 544 (from Int. Ztschr. f. Psychoanalyse, Vol. 21, Heft 1).

8.   Jeffreys, H. The Unconscious Significance of Numbers. Giving numerous historical and other examples of superstitions concerning numbers, Jeffreys says, in reference to even and odd numbers and

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particularly to the numbers 2 and 3, that the unconscious nature of the importance of certain numbers once seen, use can be made of the knowledge derived from psychoanalysis and observation of children to interpret it. The first objects of interest to the infant are the breasts and the male organ, the former two in number, the latter tripartite; and the phallic symbolism of such objects as the shamrock, the fleur-delys and the fly is well recognized. We are led directly to the suggestion that even numbers, to the unconscious, are female; odd ones, male.

(Vol. XVII, Part 3)

1.   Jones, Ernest. The Future of Psychoanalysis. 269.

2.   Fairbairn, W. R. B. The Effect of the King's Death upon Patients under Analysis. 278.

3.   Kris, Ernest. The Psychology of Caricature. 285.

4.   Riviere, Joan. A Contribution to the Analysis of the Negative Therapeutic Reaction. 304.

5.   Christoffel, H. Exhibitionism and Exhibitionists. 321.

6.   Kovacs, Vilma. Training- and Control Analysis. 346.

7.   Levin, Max. The Activation of a Repressed Impulse under Apparently Paradoxical Circumstances.

1.   Jones, E. The Future of Psychoanalysis. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 26, page 238 (from Int. Ztsckr. f. Psychoanalyse).

2.   Fairbairn, W. R. D. The Effect of the King's Death upon Patients under Analysis. On the occasion of the death of King George (Jan. 20, 1936), Fairbairn was impressed by the effect which this event had on his patients undergoing analysis, as revealed in conduct and dreams. In one case, a youth eighteen years of age, anxiety was precipitated which appeared to be due to the dangerous qualities with which the patient had endowed the internalized object. For another patient, a man of thirty-one years of age, who had sought analytic aid for an incessant desire to urinate, the event represented consummation of his oral-sadistic designs against his father. A third case in the ninth year of analysis presumed to be a woman, although the presence of a genital defect had raised some uncertainty regarding her sex, showed by her dreams on the night of the King's death that she was protecting her internalized father from her oral sadistic libido at the risk of her life, confirming Mrs. Klein's statement that every experience which suggests the loss of a real loved object stimulates the dread of losing the internalized object.

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4.   Riviere, J. A Contribution to the Analysis of the Negative Therapeutic Reaction. The negative therapeutic reaction is generally understood as a condition which ultimately precludes analysis and makes it impossible; the phrase is constantly used as meaning unanalysable. Riviere believes that the difficulty may be due, to some extent, to the analyst's failure to understand the material and to interpret it fully enough to the patient. Making use of new understanding of analytic situations she has met with success in cases called difficult, namely character-cases. The character case has never placated his super-ego, he has always maintained the projection that “circumstances” have been against him. After some analysis he may guess that he has punished others all his life and feel that what he now deserves is not “cure” but illness and punishment himself; he unconsciously fears the cure which analysis may bring him. Self-accusation and need for punishment bring about a “depressive position.” This particular anxiety-situation, the depressive, has its own special defence-mechanism, the manic reaction, and the most conspicuous feature of the manic attitude is denial and omnipotent control by the ego over all objects and all situations, including the analytic, so that approach, except on the patient's own conditions, is impossible; his narcissistic inaccessibility is one form of his denial and control. From the anxiety situation underlying this form of defence, there is actually a kind of wish not to get well and this wish is itself partly in the nature of a defence. It comes from the desire to preserve a status quo, a condition of things which is proving bearable. However, further factors are to be taken into consideration. The patient's megalomania and lack of adaptation to real life and to the analysis are only superficially denials of external reality. What he is in truth concerned in denying is his own internal reality. Here the patient's internal object-relations, which are an integral part of his narcissism, must be taken into consideration. The patient's conscious aim in coming to the analysis is to get well himself, but unconsciously his chief aim must be to cure and make well and happy all his loved and hated objects, all those he has ever loved and hated, before he thinks of himself. The offer of analysis to make him well and happy is unconsciously a direct seduction, as it were, a betrayal, and he refuses to be seduced into a cure, to the neglect of his internalized objects, whom, in his self-accusatory state, he believes he has injured. Riviere warns against deceptive recoveries in those types in which the patient develops a manic defence, taking the form of omnipotent denial of his illness and anxieties.

5.   Christoffel, H. Exhibitionism and Exhibitionists. Christoffel presents exhaustive data to show the error of underestimating the pre-genital character of male genital exhibitionism and asserts that genital symptoms in this form of exhibitionism are, for the most part, a misrepresentation

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of facts. In each and every case an uncertainty, an inhibition amounting to phobia, is found in the genital life of these patients. One need not go so far afield as China, where the phenomenon of Koro is prevalent, in order to become acquainted with the annihilating castration anxiety of genital exhibitionists. Even non-analytical writers have often been struck by their orality. As far as the writer's observations go genital exhibitionism breaks out only when puberty is drawing to a close or manhood has just been attained. Jean Jacques Rousseau gives an account of his genital sadism as occurring in 1728-31 (in his sixteenth year). Male genital exhibitionism seems to be a regressive post-pubertal catastrophe. It is by no means necessary for exhibitionism to have been primarily prominent in the child's polymorphous instinctual activity; it is mobilized secondarily, at the time when, normally, mature genitality should be asserting itself. Secondary, too, is the hypertrophy of the infantile component instinct. The heterosexual object-relation is retained—at all events manifestly; phallicism is retained, but it becomes essentially passive. It might be legitimate to speak of genital exhibitionism as a breakdown in attaining success, namely, a breakdown in reference to successful mental and physical union with a woman. At the moment when the male is impelled by an urge to such relations the catastrophe of exhibitionism occurs.

6.   Kovacs, V. Training- and Control Analysis. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, page 556 (from Int. Ztschr. f. Psychoanalyse, Vol. 21, Heft 4).

7.   Levin, M. The Activation of a Repressed Impulse under Apparently Paradoxical Circumstances. An account of a case in which consummation of incestual relations appeared in a dream at a time when the patient's conscious attitude toward the mother was one of decided hostility. Levin explains the paradox: when the defensive forces of the ego have been increased, as in this case of extreme hostility to the mother the libidinal impulse may safely be given wider expression.

(Vol. XVII, Part 4)

1.   Riviere, Joan. On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy. 395.

2.   Gerö, Georg. The Construction of Depression. 423.

3.   Eidelberg, Ludwig. A Contribution to the Study of Slips of the Tongue. 462.

4.   Searl, M. N. Some Queries on Principles of Technique. 471.

5.   Cochrane, A. L. “A Little Widow is a Dangerous Thing.” 494.

1.   Riviere, J. On the Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy. The object of this paper is to give a short general formulation

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of the earliest psychical developmental processes in the child, that is, of the problem of oral sadistic impulses and their attendant anxieties, and the fundamental defense-mechanisms against them employed by the ego at this early stage, with special reference to the defensive functions of projection and introjection. By typical examples of the infant's responses to pleasure and pain Riviere seeks to show that internal feelings and sensations are the earliest forerunner of object relations. The objects are identified with the internal conditions and so are “internalized.” Then a good feeling towards an object signifies (in phantasy, creates) a good object; a bad, hostile feeling a bad object. This relation, the attitude to the object, is both the beginning and the ultimate residue of the phantasied object inside. Projection and introjection are employed in the attempts to keep good and bad separate, to keep the bad out arid the good in. Bad feelings cannot be kept out, however, and oral longings with biting and tearing feelings of fury towards unattainable desired objects are felt as unendurable persecutors within the self, gnawing, devouring and destroying. These “archaic” feelings are a permanent element in the psychic organization, even though they are certainly not at first (and perhaps never) acknowledged or accepted by the ego. With development it is found that both good and bad feelings have to be tolerated at one and the same time, since love for the object necessitates that the aggression and pain cannot be permanently projected outside the self and have to be borne within in the form of guilt. A merging of the good and bad into one—the conflict of ambivalence—is what all previous defenses have tried to avert, because it meant that the good object could vanish and be transformed into a bad one. Only if experience has taught that love is the stronger can the two feelings be kept together in relation to a real person and not again be too widely separated in phantasy. But love for someone who has been injured evokes the pain of guilt since the child reproaches himself, believing that his own aggression is responsible for the injury. This is what the reproaches coming from the super-ego mean. When a certain degree of security has been attained, permitting a sustained good relation towards the external world, this security is equivalent to the love of the internal objects toward the child. These good internal object-relations and feelings are then prized as the most valuable possession of the ego; love and trust is felt toward them (as the ego-ideal), and impulses which rouse conflict can then be genuinely renounced, or modified and adapted to valuable ends.

2.   Gerö, G. The Construction of Depression. See Psychoanalytic Review, Vol. —, page — (from Int. Journal of Ps-A., Vol. 17, Part 4).

3.   Eidelberg, L. A Contribution to the Study of Slips of the Tongue. See Psychoanalytic Review, later.

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4.   Searl, M. N. Some Queries on Principles of Technique. The writer finds himself in accord with Hellmuth Kaiser's reliance on the analysis of resistances as the central point in psychoanalytic therapy. (See PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW.) He seeks to further clarify three problems (1) He suggests objective and subjective criteria of correct technique. The only satisfactory objective criterion of a finished analysis seems to be that of a marked improvement of the total personality, not only of one part at the expense of another; it involves the capacity to retain or quickly regain that total improvement, when tested by the independent facing of difficulties subsequently encountered. The subjective criterion of a proper technique is the analyst's intuition undistorted by emotional disturbances, and this should be combined with considerable experience and frequent confirmation of the trustworthiness of his intuition. (2) He discusses the question of the aim: what exactly does the analyst want the technique to do? Searl answers that the aim of the technique is the analysis of resistances as recommended by Freud. The analysis of resistances, or otherwise and perhaps more clearly stated, the analysis of conflicting processes, is of far wider and more effective reach than any analysis of static content: the answer to the “why not” is always applicable to many “whats,” that is to a variety of other situations, whereas the interpretation which gives absent content alone does not itself apply to anything but that content, whatever the patient's mind may do about it and whatever changes may result from such an interpretation. Searl regrets the technical term “resistance,” even though it may on the whole be the best shorthand for the purpose. It puts the emphasis on the negative strength exerted by the patient rather than on the cause. Analysis depends for its success on the cooperation with that part of the patient's mind which, however mistakenly and ineffectively, seeks a better solution. In that sense then, what we call analysis of resistances is really an analysis of ineffectual capacities, or of conflicting and mutually damaging processes. (3) Finally, by using contrasts, Searl endeavors to come to a more precise understanding of what the analysis of resistances really is: It is not a method of “breaking,” or of “conquering” or of “melting” resistances or even of showing how unreasonable they are; it is not a method of pursuit of a resistance, nor a way of deciding what the patient ought to think, or do, or say, nor yet the analysis of symptoms. It is the analysis of conflicting processes and of difficulties or disabilities. It relies on individual work with the individual and not on theories. It helps the patient to help himself. Analysis of resistances, in contrast to analysis of absent content says: “We can conclude from what you have said that you are taking such and such a method of dealing with a painful situation. That may have been the best way you could find in some circumstances, but it contained an alteration of a real state of affairs to suit emotional troubles, and therefore, whatever it did for you, it had to leave

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some of the real difficulty not really dealt with. That is the difficulty you are meeting at the present time and it is increasing any other difficulty you may have in keeping to the conditions of the analytical treatment.”

5.   Cochrane, A. L. “A Little Widow is a Dangerous Thing.” This communication suggests an explanation of attitudes towards widows and also the psychoanalytic explanation of tabus and customs concerning them in primitive peoples. The writer finds this explanation in the mother-son relation. The widow represents the mother who, through the death of the husband (father substitute), can now be approached by the son (lover). The incest tabu thus attaches to the widow.

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Article Citation

Willard, C. (1939). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(3):416-430

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