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Locke-Lewis, E. (1939). The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(3):438-449.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(3):438-449

The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

E. Locke-Lewis

(Vol. I, Nos. 1-4)

1.   Freud, S. Libidinal Types.

2.   Brill, A. A. The Sense of Smell in the Neuroses and Psychoses.

3.   Lewin, Bertram D. Analysis and Structure of a Transient Hypomania.

4.   Róheim, Géza. Animism and Religion.

5.   Williams, Frankwood E. Is There a Mental Hygiene?

6.   Fenichel, Otto. Outline of Clinical Psychoanalysis.

7.   Freud, S. Concerning the Sexuality of Woman.

8.   Freud, S. The Acquisition of Fire.

9.   Hárnik, Eugen J. Pleasure in Disguise, the Need for Decoration, and the Sense of Beauty.

10.  Kaufman, M. R. Some Clinical Data on Ideas of Reference.

11.  Róheim, Géza. Telepathy in a Dream.

12.  Lewin, B. D. Anal Eroticism and the Mechanism of Undoing.

13.  Slutsky, Albert. Interpretation of a Resistance: The Analytic Treatment as a Neurotic Defense.

14.  Fenichel, Otto. Outline of Clinical Psychoanalysis.

15.  Kardiner, Abraham. The Bio-Analysis of the Epileptic Reaction.

16.  Deutsch, Helene. On Female Homosexuality.

17.  Federn, Paul. Ego Feeling in Dreams.

18.  Feigenbaum, Dorian. Note on the Theory of Libidinal Types.

19.  Fenichel, Otto. Outline of Clinical Psychoanalysis.

20.  Flügel, J. C. Maurice Bedel's “Jerome”—A Study of Contrasting Types.

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21.  Rádo, Sandor. The Paths of Natural Science in the Light of Psychoanalysis.

22.  Reiner, Markus. Causality and Psychoanalysis.

23.  Dell, Floyd. An Autobiographical Critique.

24.  Abstract, Book Reviews, Current Psychoanalytic Literature, Notes.

No. 1.—The first issue of this Quarterly is prefaced with a statement by its editors—Dorian Feigenbaum, Bertram D. Lewin, Frankwood E. Williams, and Gregory Zilboorg—that its aims will be devoted to theoretical, clinical and applied psychoanalysis, seeking to stimulate American work and at the same time preserving close collaboration with workers abroad.

1.   This paper, here given in translation by Edith B. Jackson, may be found in the papers published by the Hogarth Press.

2.   The literature on pathological manifestations of the sense of smell is very scant although Havelock Ellis, who reviewed it thoroughly in his Sexual Selection in Man (1906), found a widespread psychiatric opinion regarding “a special tendency to the association of olfactory hallucinations with sexual manifestations.” Brill remarks that all Ellis's authorities belong to the Nineteenth Century, including among others Krafft-Ebing, Féré, G. H. Savage. Modern psychiatry has been little occupied with the sense of smell, particularly as to psychic olfactory disturbances. Hallucinations of smell were described in their textbook by Church and Peterson as rare, as well as by Bleuler, who associated them with hallucinations of taste, holding they could rarely be observed separately save in advanced manic paretic stages and certain schizophrenic delusions. With the possible exception of the work of Ferenczi and Jones, psychoanalytic literature has similarly little to offer. The author writes that he has encountered in it no psychoneurotic situation centered directly in olfaction, and in his extensive clinical experience recalls but one case seeking aid at the clinic because of regularly occurring olfactory hallucinations. In his paper on the compulsion neuroses (1908) Freud cited the incidence of the sense of smell as a factor, stating that olfaction pleasure plays a part in the genesis of neuroses after its disappearance in childhood. Here the main factors are the associations between the sex instinct and the sense of smell and that its relegation through advancing stages of civilization to the unconscious dynamic background meant also deprivations in the sexual life. These conceptions are of basic importance to Brill's discussion and are brought to illuminating focus by a question phrased by Freud in this connection: “whether the inevitable stunting of the sense of smell as a result of man's turning away from the earth and the organic repression of smell-pleasure produced by it, does not largely share in his predisposition to nervous diseases. It would thus furnish an explanation for the fact, that with the advance of civilization it is precisely the sexual life which must become the victim of repression.

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For we have long known what an intimate relation exists in the animal organization between the sexual impulse and the function of the olfactory organ.” Citations are made from the ample evidences of biology and natural history as to the significance of olfaction in animal life, particularly in carnivora and ungulata. The same significance is found in primitive peoples, references being made to the South American Jungle Indians, South Sea Islanders, the Möis of Indo-China, and desert Arabs. Concerning the latter Musil writes that among the Bedouins “the evil smell” is marked and regarded with the same apprehension that “the evil eye” signifies for certain South Europeans. In a series of cases, which can only be touched upon in this brief review, the connection is shown between olfaction and psychosexuality in terms of behavior deviation and psychotic symbolic involvement. One blind man of forty presented marked impairment of all his senses, with olfaction completely absent because of congenital atrophy of the olfactory nerve. He was impervious to hunger, and according to his statement “the sexual appetite never appearer in consciousness.” He was a passive algolagniac, having developed a feminine masochism in relation to certain traumata in early years. Full sexual development being dependent on an unimpaired sensorium, and as tactile sensation alone was intact in this patient, the development of the perversion is shown as a consequence of his multiple impairment and his flagellation phantasies an effect of his having genitalized the only sense outlet left him. Absence of the sense of smell is here stressed as regards the anatomiccal and physiological relationship between nose and genitals. Citations are made from the literature on this subject, among which are those relating to Schiff's extirpation of olfactory nerves in puppies after which, as they matured, the male could not recognize the female as such; Mantegazza's removal of rabbits’ eyes with no subsequent interference in procreation; Fliess’ demonstration of “genital spots” in the nose of women which controlled painful menstruation after cocainization; and Hans Henning's statement concerning a direct transition from the olfactory gyrus to the gyrus fornicatus. Cases having olfaction as the center of the psychotic situation are rare while disturbances in this sphere often appear as symptoms with a clear psychogenic origin. Two cases of compulsion neuroses are described in which the symptoms could be directly traced to early pleasure in odors from the mothers. Where the sense of smell does dominate the picture, involvement of other pregenital organizations is usually established. The case of a schizoid-manic boy is indicated, showing the delusion of an odor emanating from the rectum as a projection of anal-sadism. There follow the history and analysis of a necrophiliac, congenitally blind, with chief libidinal investment in smell and taste. His dominant desire was for slimy carrion, to smell and taste as well as to wallow in. “He phantasied himself altogether encased in a dead woman or in a huge dead animal so

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as to feel, smell, and taste the carrion until the end of his days.” Here the sense of smell attained the stage of primitives and animals. Other cases are described which show the extent to which study of olfactory disturbances corroborates on biontic and phyletic lines the clinical demonstration of sexuality in the neuroses and psychoses. As shown by the blind cases there is an interchangeableness in regard to libidinal activity extant between the sense organs. Brill suggests that this may be due to the common derivation of the sense organs from the cells of the epidermis, but that despite the common origin and flexibility greater repression has been exerted in evolution on the sense of smell. Although they must also be repressed and sublimated the development of sight, hearing, taste, and touch relates to biontic or individual development rather than phyletic, whereas both biontic and phyletic are involved in the sense of smell. It is in relation to this groundwork that the correlation between olfactory disturbances and the pregenital organizations of the cases described lead to the conception of Freud: that man in turning away from the earth underwent sexual losses with the disuse of smell. The sense of smell was still active when the first sexual taboos, mainly incestuous, were imposed; and thus were increased the psychobiologic correlation and need for its repression here dealt with from so many illuminating angles. 3. For an abstract of Lewin's paper see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 396. 4. Earlier missionaries and anthropologists frequently stated that primitive peoples have no religion, i.e., no idea of a Supreme Being, no conception of right and wrong, etc. In this stimulating paper Roheim writes that despite the basic obscurantism of this impression there are deeper reasons for it than the mere transference of Western Christian perspectives to primitive settings. Central Australian natives have an elaborate ceremonial, a living knowledge of many myths, but no trace of the formal religious temperament developed in the West in relation to the “bounden obligation” conception of religion dominant in classical Rome. The difference is shown to lie on quantitative lines in the development of intrapsychic structures. As there are traces of animism in “civilized” communities, so primitive religion is not without monotheistic elements. The ethical aspect of the voice of conscience is sometimes present but is not effective. The beings conceived by the Central Australians seeming to correspond with the idea of a Supreme Being are best described as “non-human” or “extra-natural.” Attitudes implied by the word super are of relatively low development: there are here but the beginnings of the development of the super-ego. In this connection a parallel is drawn between cultural development among the Aranda and clinical evidence in regard to ontogenetic development. The latter shows that the super-ego has for its nucleus the introjected castration threat of the elders. Although these primitives have but a rudimentary development of this intrapsychic structure they have in their culture a ceremonial complex in

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which a main part is played not only by circum- and sub-incision but by the removal of a testicle. Their beliefs, represented by animism and magic, comprise a synthesis of diverse unconscious trends having an intrapsychically rooted common denominator in respect both to the manner in which they go to make up complex patterns and the images by which they are manifested. At many points their animism was proved to be a projection of their Œdipus complex to the environment, and their ritual an abreaction of unconscious tension between ego and super-ego. As compared with western civilization there is here only a slight depth of repression, absence of the latency period and sado-masochistic reaction formations, and a great facility in projection. Underlying animistic beliefs are the basic trends relating to life and death, soul and ghost, the kuruna and liana, which are here finely analyzed in relation to the numerous similarities, analogies, and identities whereby they appear in Arand life. The theological complexities of the Aranda are made clear in the intrapsychic terms of ontogenetic development by means of a detailed exposition based on the analysis of individual dreams, their associations as seen against the personal background, and a subsequent correlation with the myths comprising the collective expression of the psychical mechanisms dealt with. Of chief significance is the strength of the unconscious representation of the force of life and the genital organ as shown by their beliefs and a comparative survey of mythologies. Comparisons relative to mechanisms in the formation of super-ego reactions are here of major importance, together with developmental differences in psychical dynamics as compared with the main lines of character formation dominant in the West. Regarding the latter, the further development of the super-ego with its progressive denial of life and pleasure has made for a chief differential between the religious forms crystallized thereby and the correlative trends observed in the Aranda, which are animistic and thus more concretely expressive of the life-impulse. This differential gains in depth by analysis of the degree to which the life-impulse is projected onto death, and may here be followed in further material adduced by Róheim respecting his account of the genitalization of the death instinct. This valuable contribution is divided into seven parts: Religion and Primitive Mankind, Animism in Central Australia, The Dreams of the Medicine Man, Phallic Personification, Ghosts and the Super-Ego, Post-Mortal Coitus, and Animism and Religion. Here, as with Róheim's previous work, to which much of the present matter refers, the full value of his findings and interpretations can be derived only from careful study of the original. No brief review can indicate the potential illumination of the material or the extent of the interrelations shown to exist between the theoretical structure of psychoanalysis and the cultural evidences here presented. 5. Since the beginning of the mental hygiene movement there has developed in different fields—sociology, education, law, economics,

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politics, international relations, etc.—a specific frustration related to the need to know something basic about the nature of human behavior and to what agency to look for enlightenment, Developed spontaneously from work and events in the fields themselves, this need has had no relation with mental hygiene which has remained along the circumscribed and fairly insulated lines upon which it was founded. How, Dr. Williams asks, is it to be best able to meet this dynamic situation, once having got off the individual-to-individual philanthropic pedestal? The role assumed has often been that of amelioration in the abstract with nothing more concrete regarding the deeper sources of behavior difficulties than advice tantamount to “avoid syphilis and you will avoid the syphilitic psychoses,” “avoid alcohol and you will avoid the alcoholic psychoses,” “face reality,” “know thyself,” etc. This situation is described as due to the fact that psychoanalysis has never been utilized as a basic factor in the working program of mental hygiene; that when it has been broached in this connection it has been viewed as being still only a technique for the treatment of specific illnesses rather than the investigative basis on which has been built the present psychological knowledge of mental processes. Psychoanalysis provides the data for a mental hygiene more closely at grips with increasing social needs. The strategic point is the study of infancy, beginning with infantile sexuality, stressing throughout onto-genetic stages the psychical aspects of psychobiological unity. 6. The authorized English translation of Fenichel's Spezielle Neurosenlehre, by B. D. Lewin and Gregory Zilboorg, is here begun in serial publication. The work is now available in book form, published by W. W. Norton, New York.

No. 2.-7, For this study, see Collected papers, Hogarth Press. 8. For an abstract of this paper see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 430. 9. Hárnik's paper is divided into two main parts: The Specific Ideational Content of the Castration Anxiety in Transvestitism; and Empirical and Theoretical Observations on the Need for Ornamentation, and a Hypothesis of the Origin of the Sense of Beauty. In the first the author describes a case of transvestitism on the basis of which, supplemented by findings on this subject by other workers, he states that in fetishists and transvestites of variant behavior orientations the castration complex is related to the fear of losing the prepuce or the entire penile cutaneous sheath. Hárnik's patient had a strongly developed skin eroticism, probably with constitutional reënforcement. The author asks: “Is such a disposition a constant factor in the development of pleasure in being disguised?” And further: “Is it more than tautology to relate the inherent function of the prepuce—to give pleasure during genital stimulation—to this genetic factor?” The value of these hypotheses is then examined in the light of clinical psychoanalysis and over a wide and very succinctly presented range of ethnological data.

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Of chief importance is Róheim's symbolic equation of hat, hood, cloak, prepuce and, through the principle of pars pro toto, their development to penis symbols. AH types of penis coverings may be classed with these symbols as representing either penis, covering skin, or foreskin. Next discussed are the pregenital determinants in the need for decoration. The main source is the study of narcissism in women; derived from Lewin in regard to the sublimation of anal smearing impulses: the factors of reactivation, repression and defense comprised in the erotization of the skin; and the development from the correlation of fecal smearing with compensation for loss of anal values through defecation to that of it, as “prototype of narcissistic compensation,” with compensation for deprivation of libidinal satisfactions as cedipus wishes, penis wishes, etc. The need for decoration represents its sublimated form, a main expression of which is the institutionalized skin ornamentation of primitive peoples, von Sydow's view of tatooing as sublimated cutaneous eroticism is cited, with his analysis of the sublimation whereby the psychical ramifications of the aesthetic superstructure are elucidated. Hárnik develops his conceptions through a comparative analysis of extensive findings in anthropology, ethnology, and prehistory. Space limitations forbid a review of this material, its correspondences with clinical psychoanalysis, and the constructions drawn as to the psychical origin of the sense of beauty. Freud's formulations of beauty and charm as originally attributes of the sexual object, and the quality of beauty as basically related to secondary sexual characteristics are stressed. The original source of beauty is described as the female exterior with its specific attributes, after the disappearance of hair in human evolution; feminine beauty represents a turning away from the long animal tradition, retained by the male in his decoration, and an emphasis on what in evolution is specifically human in outward individual appearance. In the discussion of psychical processes comprised in the development of beauty, phylogenetic loss of hair is associated with ontogenetic situations typified by a threatened loss: the former becomes a phylogenetic prototype charged with hereditary content of castration anxiety—following Freud's formulation of “organic repression” as an explanation of man's turning away from the earth and the inheritance of erect posture. As “organic repression” has a dynamic correlate in psychic reaction formations functioning as defense against previous ontogenetic stages, beauty is formulated as a development in place of, and as reaction against, an outgrown primitive state of the human exterior. Further correlative material describes the compensatory nature of beauty as a form of intrapsychic perception of the Eros instinct, functioning on the plane of “supraorganic” evolution; and its basic relation to aim-inhibited impulses in which its genesis is differentiated from sublimation in that its first gratification is auto- rather than allo-plastic. 10. Kaufman describes the analysis of an unmarried woman of

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thirty-three in which the chief factor was the idea of being influenced by a surety company through the use of an instrument. The case offered corroboration of Tausk's conclusion that the “influencing apparatus” stood for the entire body and the phallus, being a projection of the patient's genital. In Kaufman's case genital sensations appeared as secondary and the unconscious formula as: “My father's penis, which I cannot accept as my own, becomes an instrument which then gives me genital sensations.” 11. Róheim describes a case of anxiety hysteria and arrested personality development in a girl of twenty-six in its relation to conceptions of the unconscious meaning of telepathy and magic. Analysis showed marked similarities between the patient's fantasies, in point of meaning, and the conclusions regarding collective fantasies studied in the author's anthropological work. The “telepathic” experience was traced back to a primal scene situation from which had derived a host of magical actions, theories, ideas of demonic faces, etc. The author has found that in primitive peoples the system of demonology has been evolved in adaptation to the trauma of witnessing the primal scene; that belief in demons precedes the institutionalized totemism in the psychical structure of the society; and is associated with women and children, representing the archaic phylogenetic base from which the adult totemic forms derive. In The Riddle of the Sphinx or Human Origins Róheim has shown how the anxiety comprised in demon lore goes through a mechanism of introjection after the failure of projection and in later totemic rites is re-ingested at super-ego levels. Confirmation of these conceptions is afforded by his case of anxiety hysteria, in which the mechanism of dealing with the anxiety of having witnessed the primal scene is described as “anxietyrepressionprojection—annulment or semi-annulment of this projection by a fictive identification.” 12. Lewin reports the case of a man of forty with fears of cutting or otherwise harming his penis. The anxiety had its source in an impulse to self-castration in response to an unconscious wish for punishment because of incestuous involvements. Analysis showed that by equating penis with feces he was able to satisfy the sense of guilt and wish for castration without the fear of permanently losing the penis: by dealing with the wish at the anal level the irreversibility of punishment at the genital level could be dispensed with. The equation penis equals feces makes for the undoing of the castration, assuring there would always be penises to replace the one sacrificed anally to guilt feelings. The process of undoing serves at once the ego demands of self-defense, a means for id release in anal-sadistic satisfaction, and super-ego demands for self-punishment. Wälder is cited regarding the considerations of psychic mechanisms from this multiple standpoint. Lewin remarks on the bearing of the reversibility of this situation to the incidence of undoing as a common mechanism in compulsion neurosis. 13. Slutsky describes the case of a woman of forty-five, unmarried and

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unenlightened as to sexual matters, with a neurosis centered in castration anxiety derived from an identification with an older brother. The latter had not mastered his own. castration anxiety and the numerous illnesses undergone through his sense of guilt were carefully reflected in the patient. Feminine identification was shut off because of oedipus anxiety and carried an added threat in that the mother had died psychotic. The course of analysis is described, showing the development of libidinal reactions through which it took on the nature of a ceremonial or protective measure, becoming part of the neurotic defense and thus serving as obstacle to analytic progress.

Nos. 3-4.—15. First presented in this combined issue is Kardiner's study of The Bio-Analysis of the Epileptic Reaction, an essay of monograph proportions offering a summary of a work in preparation entitled The Physioneuroses. The traumatic neuroses and the epilepsies are studied from the etiological standpoint of trauma rather than privation so as to explain factors of ego function involved not explained by the application of the libido theory to these syndromes. The etiological factor of privation holds only for mobile cathexes, which are displaceable and permit regression; that of trauma is applicable to the non-displaceable “bound energy cathexes,” relating to ego investments in the sensory-motor-apperceptive apparatus, and is characterized by a resultant impairment of the utility value as well as the effect on the narcissistic value of the organ. The non-interchangeable cathexes established by portions of the ego vested in the organs of perception, motion and mastery are bound to the organ and in the integrated body-ego have a role basically different from that of the interchangeable free cathexes. The former, in the case of sight, is bound to the eye and results in seeing, whereas the latter serves to libidinize the objects seen. A realignment of free cathexes is the result of privation, while injury to the bound energy cathexes is that of traumatic experience. As the executive ego appendages are functionally governed by instinct energy inherent to them through phylogenesis, inhibition or destruction of the function entails a course of instinctual disorder in the individual life different from that derived from the interchangeable cathectic processes presented in transference neurosis. By substituting the factor of trauma for privation it has been possible to get behind the completed end-function, analyzing the ego instinct components involved in the development of the special physiological modes of adaptation and mastery. A chief part of this study deals with the development of organic-psychological relationships in which it is shown, from the ontogenetic viewpoint, that human plasticity toward adaptation possibilities and the definition of the paths of regression relate basically to the slowness of myelinization in ontogenetic development. The material on which the methodology and conclusions are based comprised a series of reaction types having in common the factor of traumatic experience. In

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this series, from the simple traumatic neurosis to the epilepsies, it was possible to reconstruct and analyze the epileptic reaction. Differences were quantitative rather than of kind. Despite various presenting manifestations there remained throughout a similar basic psychological picture, from which it followed, in terms of instinct involvement, that the basic conflict was the same. The psychical milieu of traumatic neurosis is to be found in the character of the epileptic, and is evidenced in many cases long before the onset of seizure. In traumatic neurosis the result of trauma is the inhibition of unsuccessful modes of adaptation. Following the impairment of the utility value of the executive ego-appendages, the resultant regression is not comparable economically to that followed in neuroses based on free cathexes, but follows predetermined paths to the earlier oral and destructive forms of mastery. In epilepsy the trauma relates to impairment of ego functions on a somatic—chiefly central nervous system—basis. Analysis of ego components in these situations does not substantiate the Freudian division of instincts into sexual and ego classifications. The inhibition of bound cathexes leads to defusion in which the instinct energy normally discharged through the organ assumes an earlier type of mastery, directs itself against the ego, or rages against the outer world. This process is followed by ego striving to rebind the released destructive forces. Rebinding is incomplete in traumatic neurosis and is represented in epilepsy by a periodic return to the birth situation and a striving for integration through re-living of earlier ontogenetic stages. The epileptic may also achieve a successful secondary rebinding in sublimation; there may be a reenforcement of intellect by the energy; it may turn to concentrated expressions of morality and religion, or be discharged against the world in criminality. The author finds in physioneurosis all the dynamics of transference neurosis save those based on displacement and symbolization. The analysis of his cases made clear the contractile character of repression; that defusion is the general reaction of which regression is a special case; and “that narcissistic investment (as in fatigue and sleep) is a buffer which neutralizes the devastating effects of defused destructiveness turned against the ego.” The conceptions and groundwork presented in this essay are described as of value in the further analytic determination of the psychopathology of organic disease, and as providing a psychological frame of reference whereby the “constitutional factor” in the transference neuroses may be approached. A direct bearing is shown between improper fusion of bound cathexes and the direction and quantitative proportions of free cathexes. By means of the traumatic factor is may also be possible to determine the genesis of primary masochism and narcissism in that trauma to the body-ego has direct effect on subsequent instinctual fusions, and that higher degrees of narcissistic neutralization necessarily follow the release of the destructive elements. This

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short review has touched on but some of the author's conclusions. There is here to be found full correlative matter regarding the morphological aspects of ego development, their relations to fusions and defusions of bound and free cathexes, metapsychological considerations, comparative studies in the essential epilepsies, and a range of fully described case histories. 16. For an abstract of this paper see THE PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW for April, 1939. 17. This paper has been abstracted in Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, No. 2, p. 211. 18. In his paper on Libidinal Types Freud suggested a definition of psychological types according to the nature of the predominant libido investment. The pure types thus distinguished were the erotic, the narcissistic, the compulsive; in addition to which were described possible combinations or “mixed types”: the erotic-compulsive, the erotic-narcissistic, the narcissistic-compulsive. These are the types into which the great mass of individuals can be classed, and which can exist without manifesting neurosis. Freud surmised, however, that there may exist a relation between the types and the form of neurosis they may show in connection with conditioning individual etiologic factors. Feigenbaum asks whether there may not be a determining relation between the pathology assumed and the inherent developmental position of the libidinal phase in relation to which the particular type of character development is specific. In Freud's classification the erotic type stands primarily for elementary id claims; the narcissistic, for those of the ego; the compulsive, the super-ego. Feigenbaum states that it may then be assumed that the three types are not phylogenetically of the same order but represent—as in relation to development from id to ego to super-ego—a progression from erotic to narcissistic to compulsive. It may then be assumed that in relation to pathology the pathoplastic power of the pure types and their combinations follow in direct proportion the line of phylogenetic progression. Thus the lowest neurotic potentiality would relate to the erotic because of the roots of this type in primitive id strata, and any advance “upwards” would augment the pathoplasticity. The same effect would be served with any admixture “upwards” whereas the admixture of a lower to a higher type would result in a lessening of pathological potentiality. A diagram is appended to elucidate this hypothesis. 20. Maurice Bedel's Jerome is here the subject of a penetrating psychoanalytic study in which Flugel, examining the divergent reactions to sexuality which in the novel finally separated the hero and heroine, shows the extent to which the ramifications of these basic attitudes participate in cultural-ethical formations and traditions. Jerome presents the situation in which the libido has been so accustomed, through compromise, to inhibitions, that it is scarcely capable of functioning without them. In Uni there has been no such compromise; superego demands have been less in general but more adamant regarding those that have been made; and both super-ego and libido can find satisfaction

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without recourse to the compromise formations which tend to satisfy one and at the same time increase the gratification of the other. In light of the differences presented by the two types, problems of libidinal economics and dynamics are discussed in relation to the demands on the individual as regards the role of super-ego and libido in cultural development. The aim of education and development should make for the achievement of more complex pleasures without the loss of capacity to enjoy the simpler ones. Cultural compulsives or psychical needs in the individual which demand “an obstacle to be overcome or a convention to be flouted before sexual pleasures can be enjoyed” indicate a neurotic element hindering rather than advancing ethical progress. 21. For an abstract of this paper, here presented in excellent translation by Monroe A. Meyer, see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. IS, p. 220. 22. Appended to Rado's study of natural science in relation to psychoanalysis is this letter to the editors of the Quarterly by Markus Reiner who, as representative of the exact sciences, indicates the latest developments in his field, correlating them with Rado's study. 23. Floyd Dell offers an autobiographical fragment based on a retrospective view of early subjective experiences, showing how far the deep instinctual reactions of infancy and childhood were later projected deterministically into his work as poet and novelist. His own experiences as artist posit a view of the function of sexuality in art different from that found in Otto Rank's Art and Artist, in criticism of which his paper is offered.

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Article Citation

Locke-Lewis, E. (1939). The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(3):438-449

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