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(1939). Imago. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(4):550-567.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Imago

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(4):550-567



(Vol. 22, No. 1)

1.   Federn, Paul. The Differentiation of Healthy and Sick Narcissism.

2.   Glover, Edward. Medical Psychology or Academic Psychology: A Problem in Orientation.

3.   Schilder, Paul. Psychology of Space.

4.   Peller-Roubiczek, L. E. Our Knowledge of Suicide.

5.   Nicolini, Wilhelm. Crime Arising from Homesickness and Its Psychoanalytic Explanation.

3.   Schilder, Paul. Psychology of Space.—Schilder considers that psychologists and philosophers have not given sufficient attention to the fact that there is not only a space outside of the body, but also a space which is filled by the body. The image of the body extends in space and already implies space perception. When we speak about narcissism we should not forget that outward space and the space of the body are the necessary basis for the unfolding of narcissistic tendencies. The descriptions of Mayer-Gross, who made a study of perception of space and time in mescal intoxication are given as well as descriptions of disturbances of space in organic brain disease and in specific psychoses and psycho-neuroses. Schilder reaches the general conclusions that the size and weight of objects, the distance and dimensions of space, speed, impact and motion, become more or less the immediate expressions of the total libidinous situation. The id-functions modify space perception continually, and they are dependent on the biological situation. It is one of the paradoxes that the hysteriform mechanism has seemingly deeper influence on the organic apparatus than the more aggressive mechanisms, the conversion mechanism belonging specifically to hysteria, though met with in some other disturbances. These mechanisms influence chiefly the vegetative system. Cases are discussed in detail showing the influence of conversion mechanisms. They influence the vestibular apparatus in its

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peripheral and central parts and also the great apparatus which serves the maintenance of posture and attitudes. Both apparatuses are of paramount importance as physiological bases for space perception. Physiological factors are at work in building up the perception of space. There is at first an undifferentiated relation between an incompletely developed body-image and the outside space. Clearer differentiation takes place around the openings of the body. There is a zone of indifference between body and outside world which makes distortions of body-space and outside space by projection and appersonalization possible. These distortions are corrected by a continuous process of testing by action. Aggressiveness may draw objects nearer to the body. Generally space develops around erogenous zones in close connection with the drives of the individual. This space is not unified and has separate parts. Under the influence of genitality the separate space units are unified. When space distortions take place on the genital level they mean either genitals or persons as units. The final appreciation of space is dependent on our appreciation of personalities. Space is therefore decidedly a social phenomenon. It is worthwhile to compare the space disturbances observed in irreversible somatic lesions with those in other forms of mental disease. To put it in a paradoxical way, the psyche remains intact in irreversible organic brain disease. It merely distorts the actual orientation in space. The gnostic apparatus of thinking are in the periphery of the personality. In other words in general paralysis and in Korsakoff's psychosis we deal with disturbances in the Ego system. In space disturbances the same principles come into appearance which we find in psychic life generally. Space is not an independent entity (as Kant states) but is in close relation with instincts, drives, emotions and actions with their tonic and phasic components.

4.   Peller-Roubiczek, P. Our Knowledge of Suicide.—Peller-Roubiczek finds in the statistical studies of S. Peller confirmation of psychoanalytic views on suicide. These statistics do not support views currently accepted and this confirmation of analytic views is of interest coming, as it does, from a source independent of psychoanalysis. In many countries suicide is on the increase. Although the statistics are not very reliable, it may be assumed with certainty that in Europe alone there are more than 100,000 suicides each year. Information as to motives in individual cases is for the most part inadequate, as the letters left by suicides rarely reveal the unconscious factors. More significant are the statistics showing the incidence in different biological, pathological and social groups. The opinions usually held that suicide is a symptom of mental disease or is due to hereditary taint, is not supported by S. Peller's study. The finding that in half of all suicides (according to Pfeiffer 90 per cent) anatomical defects in the nervous system are discovered, has never been subjected to adequate control by comparisons with the findings

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in persons who die a natural death. The claim of psychiatrists that scarcely a single normal person is to be found among suicides is open to question as their observations are not made on representative groups of the general population. S. Peller found that in many cases regarded as due to heredity, imitation of one of the parents was the better interpretation, that is to say identification with the parent. The difference in frequency of suicide in the different age groups led S. Peller to speak of a “changing frequency” with age. In men suicide is most frequent between eighteen and twenty-five years of age, the period at which aggressive reaction is strongest. It may be assumed that many heroic deaths, also most frequent in these years of life, are masked suicides. Suicide seems to depend on the will, fatal accidents, on the other hand, seem to be wholly outside of the volitional sphere, but Freud, in 1904, expressed the opinion that suicide may be the result of unconscious impulses toward self-destruction, which lead the person to seek dangerous situations. S. Peller's statistics confirm the fact that in times of war or unrest suicides decline. The psychoanalytic explanation is that at such times aggression finds sufficient outlet toward the environment (either in actual battle or in sympathy with passing events) and that consequently the destructive energy is more rarely directed against the self. In contrast with the usual opinion, S. Peller's statistics in 700 cases of suicide show that suicide in women is much more frequent in the immediate premenstrual hours or days than during actual menstruation and he explains this fact by the emotional tension which precedes menstruation and is inclined to place the psychosis menstrualis in the period immediately preceding menstruation. As to the social factors determining suicide it is found to be more frequent where there is discrepancy between expectation and realization with no possibility of venting the resulting hate on the environment, as in the half-slavery of prostitution, the state of disillusionment of young servant girls from the country placed in service in the city, and where there is social degradation with economic reverses. S. Peller's statistics give the clue to the psychoanalytic motives of suicide: (1) Overwhelming sorrow, as in youthful suicides. (2) Crude contrast of a present situation with a former one as in suicides of women after the thirtieth year. (3) Crude contrast of the condition of life with the better conditions of those in the environment, as in suicides of young servant girls before they are hardened to their condition. (4) Impossibility of extraverting aggression, as in suicides of segregated prostitutes. (5) Psychic infection, as in suicides on the field of battle and suicide epidemics.

5.   Nicolini, W. Crime Arising from Homesickness.—Nicolini explains the role of homesickness in crime from a psychoanalytic point of view. Modern development of criminology has turned attention from the crime itself to the personality of the criminal. Crimes from homesickness

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are committed exclusively by youthful persons, usually by young girls before puberty or shortly after. The explanation of crimes from homesickness as due to the overpowering physiological changes which accompany puberty, leading to a transitory psychosis, is not satisfactory and leaves obscure why others under the same conditions do not commit crimes. Nicolini offers comments on a case which Wilmanns studied at the request of the court. A young nurse girl had made an attempt to strangle her charge in order to free herself from an intolerable situation and return to her home. It was also discovered that she had committed thefts. She gave confused accounts of her motives and had but a vague idea of the enormity of her attempted crime. She said she had felt a great sense of relief after attempting the murder. She spent some time in prison and seemed so tractable and docile that a question as to her mental responsibility arose. Wilmanns was called upon for a decision as to whether or not she was feebleminded. The girl's history revealed lively conflicts centering about her fixation on the father, hostility to her mother and the younger children of the family, and sense of guilt arising from the Œdipus situation. She blamed her mother and the younger children in the family for her forced and continued separation from her father. Her relation to the mistress with whom she was in service and to the young child placed in her care was a repetition of the family situation and constituted a psychic trauma, resulting in regression and increased fixation on the father. The attempt to strangle the child under her care was the substitute outlet for her hate against those responsible for her separation from her father. Her thefts were symbolic acts representing efforts to gain possession of the father. Her sense of guilt found relief in deeds which invited punishment. Nicolini explains that somesickness is not a longing for some definite place; the word “home” signifies a feeling-complex centering about an incestuously fixed libido. In attempts to explain other crimes as due to homesickness, it must first of all be determined whether the criminal deeds fit into the frame of the Œdipus situation.

(Vol. 22, No. 2)

1.   Jones, Ernest. Psychoanalysis and the Instincts.

2.   Bibring, Edward. The Development and Problems of the Theory of Instincts.

3.   Bischler, W. Suicide and Sacrificial Death.

4.   Eidelberg, Ludwig. The Psychology of Slips of the Tongue.

5.   Gross, Alfred. The Psychology of Secrets.

6.   Fuchs, S. H. The Position of Contemporary Biology Presented in Kurt Goldstein's “The Structure of the Organism.”

1.   Jones, E. Psychoanalysis and the Instincts.—Jones’ object is to describe some of the contributions psychoanalysis has made to the obscure

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problem of the instincts. It is Freud himself, the pioneer of psychoanalysis, who has made by far the greater part of these contributions. For the first fifteen or twenty years of his researches Freud contented himself with a very simple and broad grouping of instinctual manifestations. He assumed two groups calling them the sexual instincts and the ego instincts. The second phase dates from 1914, when he published a disturbing essay “On Narcissism.” This essay gave a disagreeable jolt to the theory of instincts on which psychoanalysis had hitherto worked. In a book published in 1920 entitled “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” he offered an unexpected solution of the dilemma he had produced in 1914. This solution he reached by a train of very abstract theorizing. He had been trying to see whether all mental processes were subject to the great pleasure-pain principle and further what was the essential purpose and function of this principle. The first question he answered in the negative and he postulated another regulating principle besides the familiar pleasure-pain one, and one more archaic than it—the repetition compulsion, the blind impulse to repeat earlier experiences. The point common to both these principles is their conservative nature. Both resist interference with a preexisting state of affairs and try to minimize or undo the effect of disturbing stimuli. The outcome of this train of thought was that Freud's duality finally took the form of a division of mind into two sets of instincts which he termed life instincts and death instincts respectively, or if one prefers Greek names, Eros and Thanatos. The three stages in the development of Freud's ideas concerning the duality of instincts were (1) contrast between sexual and ego instincts; (2) contrast between object-love, or allo-erotic libido, and self-love; (3) contrast between life and death instincts, between Eros and Thanatos. The difficulty was to allocate the innumerable manifestations of mental life to one or the other of these instincts. It occurred to Freud to bring together two lines of work, the purely theoretical one leading to the conception of an imminent death instinct, and the detailed analytical studies of the superego with its revelation of a terrifying formidable instinct of aggression. The difficulty would be overcome if these two should prove to be the same and this very visible aggressive instinct be the directing against the outer world of the death instinct that had originally been concerned with the destruction of the individual. The turning of the direction of instinct from inward, outward, or trice versa, presented no difficulties, as illustrated by sadism and masochism, and by suicide, which is the result of murder wishes turned from their objects in the outer world and directed against the self. The theory of instincts which Freud holds at the present time is composed of three elements: two premises and an inference. The

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premises are the existence of a positive tendency towards self-destruction and of an outwardly directed aggressive impulse. The inference is that these two are identical.

2.   Bibring, E. The Development and Problem of the Theory of Instincts.—Bibring notes that, notwithstanding modifications suggested, such as those of Federn and Edoardo Weiss, who defend a trialistic view, and of Reich and others, who defend a monistic, Freud's views were from the start and have remained dualistic. They have passed through four stages of development: (1) separation of sexual and ego drives; (2) introduction of narcissism or non-libidinous egoism into the libido theory; (3) a stage (usually overlooked in the literature) characterized by the separation of the aggressive drives as an essential element in the ego-formation; (4) a stage resulting from a wider knowledge of the total psychic apparatus, in which the dualism took the form of a separation into a vital psychic stratum (the id) and an organized element, the ego, with an unconscious factor, the super-ego. The nucleus of this concept is that the aggressive tendencies are no longer regarded as original characteristics of the ego-instinct, but as an independent aggressive or destructive drive in the vital stratum. The ego thereby loses its independent character and becomes a derivative, partly of the libidinous and partly of the aggressive drives. Concurrently with this fourth step in the development of the theory of instincts a more fundamental theory developed, the theory of the original archaic tendencies, the so-called life and death instincts. They furnish a broader theoretical foundation for psychic phenomena, solving questions which had hitherto remained open and unifying and simplifying the theoretical concepts. The biological drives toward life—sexual drives, ego drives whose purpose is self-preservation, the pleasure principle—all these are related to one another. The death drives which lead to reduction of tension—extraverted aggression, the Nirvana principle, inclination to seek repose—all these are related and form a single group. The mysterious archaic forces which are back of all these manifestations work each in its own direction, opposed to each other or in union, as in masochistic pleasure, in pain, as sadism, as need for punishment, as hate of self and aggressive ego-drives, etc. All these facts, hypothetical views and theories, while susceptible of being formed into concepts are often ambiguous and elusive. Clearly denned ideas cannot always be reached in psychology. However, much is accomplished if the way is indicated into a new territory and concepts are suggested which shed any light at all on the subject.

3.   Bischler, W. Suicide and Sacrificial Death.—Bischler agrees with Halbwachs (Les causes du suicide) in the opinion that there is a

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difference between suicide and sacrificial death, and disagrees with Durkheim (Le suicide), who denies any such difference. According to Bischler's interpretation suicide represents a direct or indirect revolt of the ego (of the son), being thus a weakening of the affective relation to the super-ego (the father, society), or an attempt to reestablish loosening libidinal fixation, or, finally, self-punishment, redemption, or rebirth. Self-immolation or sacrificial death on the other hand, is a total or partial annihilation of the ego through identification with the higher punishing instance (super-ego, father, society). The suicide may act from aggressive, egoistic or from altruistic motives. Sacrificial death is always an expression of oblative motives. If the character of the instances which work together are examined it is found that in every case the ego is victim of the onslaught of the id, of the anger of the super-ego, or of compulsive external influences. The id plays a more or less important role, showing itself at times sadistic and violent, at times masochistic. The super-ego, for the most part, assumes a role of independence and command. The ambivalent attitude of society toward suicide is thus explained: Society demands the punishment of the guilty ego, of the rebellious son (role of the super-ego), but condemns suicide, not only those due to the revolt of the ego, but also many oblative suicides. The reason is that the ego, in suicide, is performing a supererogatory function in assuming a punishing role without waiting for the verdict of the community. What Durkheim and Halbwachs call the community and social compulsion, according to Bischler, resolves itself into affective, libidinous relations, which are to be found in the id and super-ego of all persons. These are meta-personal, irrational, illogical forces against which the conscious ego is powerless. Sociologists hold that thoughts, volitional expressions and other psychological phenomena are conditioned by society, formed by it and in its service; psychoanalysis confirms this thesis in so far as to accept that some of the psychic functions are partly extrapersonal, for it is these functions which give rise to the Freudian super-ego, springing, on the one hand, from differentiation of sexual and social drives and, on the other, from the collective unconscious.

4.   Eidelberg, L. The Psychology of Slips of the Tongue.—Eidelberg finds that mistakes in speech are not simply expressions of emerging wishes. They are due rather to defense reactions of the ego. The mechanism is described as follows: A word or sentence which is to be described in speech has, besides the conscious meaning, an unconscious connotation which serves the gratification of infantile instinctive drives. In order to prevent the gratification of prohibited wishes of the id, a defense is set up in the unconscious part of the ego. This defense consists in mobilizing

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opposing instinctive energy. It is not as yet possible to decide whether all slips of the tongue are conditioned by this mechanism.

5.   Gross, A. The Psychology of Secrets.—The character of secrets changes with the sexual regime, and continues to change above the anal level. At the anal level the content occupies the foreground in the form of a possession and striving for retention. With the disappearance of the anal regime secrecy gradually loses the character of a possession and the conflict between retention and bestowing arises. With further advances toward the genital organization the outward orientation grows stronger and secrets come to be an aid to exhibitionism (hinting, showing-off). With continued development secrets assume the character of a boon to be awarded and are used to establish friendly relations with the outer world (confidences, sympathetic revelations), and finally they become aids in courtship. In this way the secret thing ceases to be a possession and secrecy becomes a function. The origin of the secret in the Œdipus complex is established. In this situation the “secret” thing may act as a traumatic agent. It may be identified with the genitals of the adult, taken as a substitute for the Œdipus wish, and further elaborated in the ego.

6.   Fuchs, S. H. The Position of Contemporary Biology.—Taking Goldstein's “Structure of the Organism” as indicating the trend of biology at the present time, Fuchs examines Goldstein's totality concept in its biological, philosophical, psychological and psychoanalytical implications. Fuchs finds that Goldstein's dynamic views are in some respects in accord with those of psychoanalysis. Rejecting important conceptions, however, Goldstein makes the criticism that Freud, in his presentation of the mechanisms of the unconscious, makes the mistake of assigning typical process to only a circumscribed part. Processes such as repression are biological and are not the result of intrapsychic conflicts; they correspond to changing total attitudes of which they are only specific instances, wholly comparable to specific attitudes in the organic sphere. According to Goldstein there are no separate instincts; these are comparable to reflexes and may be subjected to the same explanations and evaluations. There is no separate psychic energy “because the psyche exists only in abstracto.Sublimation is rejected as well as the concept of the death instinct. Fuchs presents the argument for psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis from the very beginning defended the totality concept in the truest sense of the word. Goldstein's method might be regarded as an application of psychoanalysis to brain physiology. When Freud describes the manner in which this apparatus is constructed, he means psychically constructed. Freud's theory is what a theory should be—abstract experience;

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it is related to the separate facts as grammar is related to speech. The experiences which the analytic situation renders prominent (but in no wise makes) force to the assumption of the psychic instances. Totality and experience and standpoint always falls within the organism and is only one definite figure: a totality concept is only possible as proceeding from the psyche. In the psyche lies the line where body and mind, the outer and inner world, meet. The image of “totality” from an outside view leaves the picture incomplete.

(Vol. 22, No. 3)

1.   Mann, Thomas. Freud and the Future.

2.   Landauer, Karl. The Affects and Their Development.

3.   Winterstein, Alfred v. Swedenborg's Religious Crisis and His Dream-Diary.

4.   Kris, Ernst. Notes on Paintings of Psychotic Patients.

5.   Sterba, Richard. Criteria of Libido.

1.   Mann, T. Freud and the Future.—In a speech before the Academic Association for Medical Psychology, in celebration of Freud's eightieth birthday, the great writer Thomas Mann testified to the influence which Freud has had on art and literature. The phase of psychoanalysis which awakened his greatest interest as a novelist is the manner in which it finds the general in the particular and individual, and revives mythical figures in the actual world. The typical is always the mythical and as there is the living present there is the living past of mythology. Mann says that since he has ceased to depict in his novels the individual citizen and has made the step to the mythical type, his latent inclination to the analytic standpoint has, so to speak, arrived at an acute stage. When the mythical aspect becomes subjective and awakens the ego of the mythically oriented raconteur and he recognizes the return of type in his individual characters, and gives them flesh and blood, this is not a new process. It is a repetition met with in the preservation of historical forms. Cleopatra is an Ischtar-Astarte image, Aphrodite in person. Under psychoanalytic inspiration he celebrated the myth of Joseph in making him the hero of one of his most serious productions (Joseph in Egypt). He calls this work a union in narrative of psychology and myth which at the same time is a festive meeting of poetry and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic insight, he says, has changed the world; with it a great distrust has arisen, a lively inquiry into the secrets of the soul and of creative production, which, once awakened, will never sleep again. Its

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influence has filtered into life, undermined vague beliefs, robbed life of the pathos of the unknown. It discourages inflated rhetoric, encourages modesty. He quotes Freud who says epigrammatically “Where Id was Ego shall be” and calls the task of psychoanalysis a labor of culture, comparable to draining dry the Zuiderzee.

2.   Landauer, K. The Affects and Their Development.—Landauer discusses the phylogenetic and ontogenetic elements of the ego which are manifested as affects, emotions and temperament. The forces of the id, the instincts, flow on rhythmically and continuously in harmony with the life processes in the organs. Affects develop on this foundation and in studying them it is necessary to begin with the first motor manifestations in the new-born infant, not with the terminal forms of emotional tones and nuances of feeling in the developed psyche. Affects cannot be interpreted as simple reflexes, as direct responses to stimuli. Rather two antithetical tendencies are involved in the phenomenon. Freud believed himself forced to assume in all affects an inherited compromise of opposing tendencies and writes therefore in “Inhibition, Symptom and Anxiety” that affects are, as it were, inherited hysterical attacks. Just as in acquired hysterical attacks the agonist appears in the ego and is conscious, while the influence of the antagonist, arising in the unconscious, is inferred from its motor manifestations. Among other examples of a compromise between opposite tendencies fear is described. There is frequently a flaccid form of reaction—shammed death. This form has the appearance of a reflex—the “death reflex.” At the sight of an object causing terror death is pretended for a time for the purpose of escaping permanent death, but to regard this behavior as a reflex seems to Landauer one-sided, an aim which is only secondary being too strongly emphasized. In reality two opposite aims are involved, a secondary one of anticipating death and another of annihilating the object of fear by rejecting it and cutting off all perceptual contact with it. Fear is here not only flight, but also defense. Following the same train of observation he finds that in fear there is really a secondary hysterical attack to avoid a primary one. Defense by casting out the object of terror is accompanied by intensification of all the life functions, in the effort to avoid its opposite death, even sham death. Sudden orgasm, involuntary urination and evacuation, all phenomena of fear, may be regarded as intensifications of bodily functions connected with the tendency to reject (in some lower forms of animal life the body is actually turned inside out). An example of opposing tendencies is the motor unrest in anxiety, which in exaggerated form results in aimless running hither and thither. Narcissistic pleasure in the bodily ego and its functioning is the great antidote against

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the poison of losing the self. Psychoanalytic observation has traced the operation of these two opposing reactions—flight into non-existence and flight of defense in the form of intensified activity of the organism, at various levels. It has demonstrated the great importance of primary narcissism as a force opposing the tendency toward preexistence, toward death and also the importance of secondary narcissism as a force opposed to the intrapsychic ataxia arising from castration fear. Flight and defense have reference to an object. Self-protection in the form of intensification of life tendencies have reference only to the self, but to understand the affects which have reference to the object it is necessary to descend deeper—to primitive reactions such as extension, retraction, rigidity. In progressing development a part of the affects are delegated to subordinate elements of the ego, while the main ego, reasonable and brave, loving and defending, is turned toward reality. Affects encapsulated and stripped of other content, become reflexes. On the other hand super-affects may be formed, as fear of shame (embarrassment), fear of fear (caution). As the interdicted affect always emerges anew, however, the super-affect seems to be continuous and constitutes a mood, or temperament. The most frequent super-affect is fear of anxiety, but there is also a whole series of others. In the course of countless generations mankind has developed beyond the typical response to the perception of a typical stimulus, that is to say, beyond the primitive reactions and the primitive anxiety attacks. Today mankind is in the period of emotions, particularly of fear. But little by little the intellect emerges, nourished by the emotions. It may teach us to overcome the causes of fear.

3.   Winterstein, A. Swedenborg's Religious Crisis and His Dream-Diary.—Hitschmann in his study of Swedenborg expressed the hope that his brief pathological picture might be supported by later data. Winterstein finds such supplementary support in Swedenborg's recently published diary of dream. He cites and analyzes many of the dreams and comments that this diary renders intelligible the onset of Swedenborg's paranoia following the outbreak of his homosexuality (passive feminine wish-phantasy). A parallel is drawn with Freud's Schreber case and Winterstein, in Swedenborg's history, finds confirmation anew of Freud's theory as to the significance of homosexual wishes in the etiology of paranoia. Numerous expressions of compulsive-neurotic character spring from the anal-sadistic foundation are to be found in this dream diary. They seem to have arisen from the inner conflict connected with the homosexual phantasies (feminine role). The conflict was resolved by a narcissistic compensatory formation with religious sublimation on a higher level. The attitude became one of self-sacrifice to god-the-father. With changed ego-ideal the prohibition of homosexuality became a command from God

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imposing submission. Swedenborg's London vision in April, 1745, indicates the final form taken by the psychic conflict and the full elaboration of the religious delusion. The special value of the dream diary for psychoanalysis lies in the fact that here the dream content and the inter-current waking experiences reveal in unambiguous manner the connection between the unconscious instinctive processes and the mythical religious development, so that it is difficult to deny a causal relation.

4.   Kris, E. Notes on the Paintings of Psychotic Patients.—Kris endeavors to make a comparison of drawings of psychotic patients with those of persons in normal condition. In the drawings of unskilled psychotic patients and of unskilled normal persons it is difficult to distinguish the psychotic peculiarities as the technical imperfections obscure the psychic determinants. Therefore Kris approaches the problem from a different direction, seeking to discover in what manner the productions of skilled artists are altered by the schizophrenic process. The disturbance of the psychic economy which accompanies this disease picture involves the relations of the ego to the outer world, leading to an impoverishment of these relations, at the terminal stage to such extent that there seems to be a complete severance of these relations. In the first stages this loosening of relations is covered by an effort at restitution. This effort is manifested by increased productivity—geometrical scribbling, drive to write, as in the case of Hoelderlin who composed many of his finest poems in this stage. Regarding the compulsions to draw and paint as an effort at restitution in skilled artists suffering from schizophrenia Kris seeks signs pathognomonic for the disturbance. He studies particularly the works of two artists, noting the alterations of style during the schizophrenic process. The first was a professional designer treated by Pfeifer and Weygandt, the second the Swedish painter, Josephson. Illustrations from these two artists are given showing the style before the disease process had declared itself and the changes during the restitution phase of the disease. In the paintings and drawings during the schizophrenia Kris recognizes dominance of the primary processes, the “language of the id,” which, as in the dream, is only intelligible by interpretation. The ego is overwhelmed by unconscious content, though in this stage it still preserves sufficient guiding power to prevent the distortions from going too far. In antithesis to these psychotic patients, the normal artist, in his creations, presents the object in its full, at times enhances value and reality, revealing it in a new light, both for himself and the public.

5.   Sterba, R. Criteria of Libido.—Sterba, examining Bernfeld's criteria of instincts finds that Bernfeld's concept reduces to two principles: (1) psychoanalytic, of which the principal element is the feeling

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of sexual pleasure; (2) the physiognomic, characterized by tendency and effect, that is to say, growth and development. Sterba finds that as result of their complete difference in nature, these two principles are wholly independent and therefore cannot stand in contradiction, and that Bernfeld's criticism of Freud is unwarranted. While Freud has avoided explicitly defining the concept “sexual,” he suggests, in reference to libido, both principles advanced by Bernfeld. Sterba points out as significant that the sexual act, the culmination and prototype of everything sexual is a convincing combination of the two criteria—pleasure raised to its highest pitch and effect in the most intimate union of two individuals and also in the form of growth with the final creation of a new being. (Bernfeld's paper was published in Imago, Band 21, 1935. For abstract see Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 26, page 403.)

(No. 4)

1.   Jekels, Ludwig. Pity and Love.

2.   Schilder, Paul. On the Psychoanalytic Aspect of Geometry, Arithmetic and Physics.

3.   Servadio, Emilio. The Fear of the Evil Eye.

4.   Bergler, Edmund. On the Psychology of the Gambler.

5.   Hermann, Imre. New Contribution on the Comparative Psychology of the Primates.

6.   Sterba, Richard. On the Theory of Transference.

7.   Wulff, M. On the paper of E. Kris, “Notes on Paintings of Psychotic Patients.”

1.   Jekels, L. Pity and Love.—Jekels finds that pity and love, under certain circumstances, mutually exclude or at least limit each other. In real unambivalent love there seems to be no place for pity of the object. Support for this view he finds in the psychology of pity. It consists in feeling the pain of another in ourselves on the ground of the mutual feeling of guilt—that is, in experiencing with another the eroticized punishment of being beaten, for all pain, misfortune, etc., reduces to the unconscious situation of being beaten. The castration fear stands in the way of complete identification with the sufferer and the complex emotion meets with one of two fates: either it becomes “feminine,” masochistic, unproductive pity, with full acceptation of the castration situation, or “masculine,” productive pity with a struggle against the situation; the emphasis is here placed on the “thou” and the sufferer as object is kept at a distance. In love we have to do with Eros in most intensive form

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that is with the strongest tendency to restore unity and integrity. He asks: is not unity most completely brought about by the oral incorporation, by introjection and identification founded on it? To Jekels this explanation seems to be more in keeping with the facts that an explanation of love as cathexis of an object. He sees no way by which the cathexis of the object could lead to restoration of unity. In pity the object is always “thou.” In love the object is always also—perhaps to a much greater extent—“I.” This is the essential characteristic of love, and of love only.

2.   Schilder, P. On the Psychoanalytic Aspects of Geometry, Arithmetic, and Physics.—Schilder describes cases, the symptoms of which consisted of compulsions involving counting and relations to space. For Sydney C., the numbers had symbolic significance. 1 equaled father; 2, mother; 3, the family (uncles and aunts); 4, himself; 5, death; 6, anyone else; 7, unidentified. Repressed aggression in this patient reappeared symbolically in numbers, as a counter-attack. Counting numbers (as the number of steps taken, or articles handled) assured him that the objects to be attacked were still there. Five only reminded him of death or of his own destruction. Schilder explains this compulsion to count; the individual strives for a world in which no disturbing tensions occur on any “side” of the situation. Normally, equalization of tension takes place in the organism “tonically”; in this case touching is a symbolic substitute. Equilibrium is an aim in itself and from constant fear of disturbance of the equilibrium of tension, the patient puts up the aggressive defense of counting. For another patient space had particular significance. He was overcome with anxiety if he found himself in the middle of the room, for example, if he touched something with his right hand he was compelled to touch it with his left also. He undertook complicated symbolic operations with numbers. In connection with these cases Schilder refers to Federn's article, “An Every-day Compulsion” (See Psychoanal. Rev., 21, 214, 1934). In compulsions of this character symmetry, asymmetry, inequality of weights, whatever has cracks or corners, all the geometrical qualities of the world excite anxiety, are menaces against which defenses must be set up. Another case is cited in which there was a compulsion to dismember. Schilder concludes that these observations indicate the connection of the compulsion to count and of counting itself with acting, and not simply with acting but with aggression. The concept of enumerating is closely connected with that of dismembering and dividing in turn is at the same time rending apart; with these activities the concept of coherence and internal resistance is immediately connected. Activity and aggression are related to oral and anal tendencies and in neurotic cases of this sort there is a regression in

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the ego structure, which runs parallel with regression in the libidinal sphere, though the connection with genital tendencies is looser. It does not seem, however, that aggression is exclusively an oral and anal derivative; taking food and the eroticism bound up with it is only a part of self-preservation and of the conquest of the world. While there is probability that counting existed in an almost formless world, geometry came to life with higher organization. Asymmetry is an ultimate, fundamental menace and threats to the body as a whole affect the inner organs and sensations as well as the sexual function and symmetry and balance are spatial phenomena which arouse definite moral attitudes expressed first of all in the muscle system (the ego) but involving also the viscera (libido). In psychoanalytic sense then the problem of arithmetic, geometry, and physics is a problem of the ego, but it is the libidinous situation which determines when and to what extent these ego qualities shall be used. They constitute powers for mastering situations, therefore means of defense against threatened dangers. The danger may exist in the form of inanimate forces which have to be enumerated and located, but it is also a threat on the part of the father. There is tear of the uncanny powers of the outer world, but first of all there is fear of the father who threatens to castrate and dismember. The fear of the father reinforces the fear of asymmetry and the fear of loss of balance, and this situation gives rise to the compulsions involving number and special qualities. Geometry and the structure of the external world are therefore regularly bound up with structurally anchored ego functions, the performances of which are in general determined by libidinous attitudes and instinctual situations.

3.   Servadio, E. The Fear of the Evil Eye.—Servadio refers to the superstitions which have existed throughout the ages and in all lands regarding the malign influence exercised by the glance of certain persons. From the very first years of research the attention of psychoanalysts has been attracted to eye-symbolism and it was recognized that the eye is a substitute for the masculine or feminine genitals or for sexuality in general. Servadio finds that for the unconscious the fear of the evil eye corresponds to the fear aroused in children at seeing the genitals of adults, which may be so great as to act traumatically, giving rise to inner conflicts and destroying sense of guilt. Connected with the fear at seeing the genitals of others is the need to hide the genitals; fear of “being seen” is castration fear, because the sight of the member may incite to amputation. Servadio's article had been written and accepted but had not appeared in print, when an article on the same theme by Fenichel was published (“Scoptophilia and Identification.” Internationale Zeitschrift f. Psychoanalyse, Band 21, Heft 4. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 25, page 560). Agreeing with Fenichel Servadio notes points which have been emphasized by the study of superstitions regarding the evil

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eye: (1) The correspondence between “seeing,” injuring, seizing, maiming, etc. (2) The deeper and more significant correspondence between seeing and devouring. (3) The characteristic qualities of ocular introjection, of the process of identification and of projection. (4) The relation between the fear of being eaten, fear of being castrated, and fear of being looked at. The fear of the eyes of adults is not only fear of an equivalent of the genitals, but is also a result of an identification and projection, a process by which the same qualities of aggressiveness which characterizes the ocular introjection of the child itself are ascribed to another. The relation between staring eyes, erection, castration and death is also brought out. The myth of Medusa is cited as illustrative of all the characteristics associated with the evil eye.

4.   Bergler, E. On the Psychology of the Gambler.—Bergler reviews literature on gambling and gamblers inclusive of Freud's study of Dostojevski. He also describes patients who were gamblers and were treated by him. He draws conclusions: The decisive factor for the personality of the gambler is the infantile fiction of omnipotence. Gambling offers the only situation in which the person is not obliged to sacrifice his omnipotence of thought and will to the reality principle, and in which the reality principle offers no advantage over the pleasure principle. In this fixation on the infantile “autarchic fiction” there is a posthumous aggression against the maternal or paternal authority which the reality principle has inculcated in the child. The unconscious aggression together with the indulgence of the omnipotence of thought and the pleasure of exhibition in a manner socially permitted, form a pleasure triad. This triad has an opposite, a punishment triad composed of unconscious fear of loss, unconscious homosexuality, and sense of social blame. Between these opposites there are bridges of masochistic character so that a state of things is brought about in which the feeling of loss is eroticized and reformed according to a masochistic mechanism, the homosexual wishes are enjoyed in the form of passive feminine identification and the sense of social degradation or the real poverty resulting from gambling is utilized to satisfy the need for punishment, and thus the vicious circle of unconscious pleasure and unconscious self-imposed pain is continued. At foundation gambling is an effort to compel love with an unconscious masochistic background, and for this reason the gambler always loses in the long run. Five types of gamblers may be distinguished: (1) The classical gambler. In this type there is preponderance of the fiction of omnipotence with pleasure and punishment trends as described. (2) The gambler from unconscious homosexuality. (3) The gambler who is putting up a defense against homosexuality. (4) The gambler from an unconscious sense of guilt. (5) The “dispassionate” gambler, who is really assuming a disguise, for a person so constituted would not gamble. The pleasure-punishment triads are common to all these types, their differences

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consist in the quantitative admixture of the members of the triads. The prognosis for psychoanalytic therapy is different for each type.

5.   Hermann, I. New Contributions on the Comparative Psychology of Primates.—Hermann offers psychoanalytic reflections on the experiment made by W. N. and L. A. Kellogg and described in their book, “The Ape and the Child.” They took a seven-months-old chimpanzee and for nine months subjected it to the same regime as their own two-months-old son. Hermann compares this experiment with those of others on monkeys and apes. All these observers agree on the inability of these animals to form a super-ego and Hermann finds the explanation in the psychology of the formation of the super-ego, developing as it does from castration fear but involving introjection of the person with authority and the constant and permanent presence of this introjected factor as a guiding force among the ego-instances. These animals are incapable of reacting to a situation which is not immediately present. The mother-child relation and the reactions at separation are the main phenomena examined in this study and comparisons with human behavior on the basis of clinical material are made. Self-mutilation so often observed in monkeys and apes is regarded as a reliving of the separation from the mother.

6.   Sterba, R. On the Theory of Transference.—Sterba defines transference as understood in analytic therapy: It implies the reliving of past relations to objects and the readjustment of present relations in such way that the analyst takes the place of the object, and these relations to objects are relived with the physician as object. The analyst is invested with qualities foreign to his actual person and replaces the original persons in so far as instinctive relations, attitudes, wishes and phantasies are concerned. In typical cases the person analyzed does not realize this replacement, the change of object taking place in the unconscious. With Freud, Sterba believes that the transference situation is based on love. He does not agree with Jekels and Bergler who consider transference as an act based on fear and despair. (“Transference and Love,” Imago, Band 20, 1934. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 26, page 252.) Sterba notes that transference is an object relation and as in every other important object relation of adults, past object relations formed in childhood furnish the clichés for all subsequent relations. Ferenczi fixes the age up to which object relations are newly developed. He says that in every human being, the child, full of longing to be loved, full of fear and anxiety, continues to live in the adult, so that later loving and hating and fearing are only “new editions” of the feelings experienced in earliest childhood (before the completion of the fourth year) which have been later repressed. Sterba asks whether the phylogenetically inherited schemas may not be considered in ontogenesis as the model of all transference, and looks to a richer experience in child analysis for answer.

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7.   Wulff, M. On the paper of E. Kris, “Notes on the Paintings of Psychotic Patients.”—Wulff refers to two hypotheses put forth tentatively in Kris’ article (Imago, 22, 3. See Psychoanal. Rev., Vol. 26, page 561) and suggests that the problem should be approached in a different manner. He sees a confusion of autoplastic and alloplastic factors in Kris’ view that the lack of expression in the human countenance as depicted by schizophrenics is due entirely to efforts at restitution. Wulff sees in this vacuity of expression a compromise between an unsuccessful effort to return to the real world and the disturbing disease process.

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Article Citation

(1939). Imago. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(4):550-567

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