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Willard, C. (1939). Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische Forschung: 1914. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(4):567-577.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische Forschung: 1914

(1939). Psychoanalytic Review, 26(4):567-577

Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische Forschung1: 1914

C. WillardAuthor Information

Aside from a very extensive review of the progress of the psychoanalytic movement between the years 1909 and 1913 covering some one hundred and fifty pages and which does not, of course, lend itself to further review, the 1914 Jahrbuch contains the following original contributions:

1.   Freud: Zur Einführung des Narzissmus.

2.   Abraham: Über Einschränkungen und Umwandlungen der Schaulust bei den Psychoneurotiker nebst Bemerkungen Über analoge Erscheinungen in der Völkerpsychologie.

3.   Federn: Über zwei typische Traumsensationen.

4.   Jones: Die Empfangnis der Jungfrau Maria durch das Ohr.

To these may be added a very illuminating contribution by Freud—illuminating in setting forth in no uncertain terms Freud's personal attitude towards the schism which has taken place in the psychoanalytic movement in the past two years or so.

We are told on the title page that this “Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse” is the continuation of the “Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Forschungen”—and whereas this latter publication was largely under the direction of Jung, the present Jahrbuch is under the direction of Abraham and Hitschmann.

1.   Freud. The Introduction of the Concept of Narcissism into Psychopathology.—The term “narcissism” as originally used by Näcke was intended to symbolize that form of behavior in which an individual treats

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1 Among the papers left by Dr. White at the time of his death this abstract was found. It is being published so long after its original writing solely as a matter of historical significance and to fill a gap in the history of psychoanalytic literature, since the Review has tried to offer a complete resume of the movement.—[J.]

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his own body in a similar manner as he treats the body of a sexual-object—contemplating and caressing it to the point of gaining full gratification. Narcissism in this signification of the term acquires the import of a sexual perversion, which has encompassed the entire sexual life of the individual, and has to be consequently approached from the same standpoint as other forms of perversion. Psychoanalytic investigation, however, revealed the fact that isolated narcissistic traits are manifested by many individuals burdened with other disorders, so that we were led to the opinion that a so-called narcissistic placement of the libido may deserve a much wider consideration and may have its place in the natural development of psychosexuality. The same opinion was reached in contemplating the difficulties encountered in psychoanalytic work with neurotics, where it seemed that one of the limits of the neurotic's impressionability was conditioned by just such a narcissistic behavior.

Narcissism in this sense of the term would not be a perversion but a libidinous complement of the egotism of the self-preservative motive—of which every living being possesses some share. A strong impetus for the assumption of the concept of a primary normal narcissism was furnished by the recent efforts to study dementia praecox (paraphrenia according to Freud) in the light of the libido theory. These patients show two fundamental traits of character, namely delusions of grandeur and the withdrawal of their interest from the outside world, from both persons and things. As a result of the latter characteristic they render themselves unapproachable to psychoanalytic therapeutic endeavors. One must, however, not lose sight of the fact that this relinquishment of reality is likewise manifested by the hysteric and compulsion neurotic; here, however, psychoanalysis reveals that erotic relations to persons and things still exist, that the individual clings to him in his phantasy, either by substituting imaginary objects culled from memory for the real ones, or by any intermixture of the two. For this state of the libido Jung's characterization of “introversion” is quite adequate. It is different with the paraphrenic. The latter seems to have actually withdrawn his interest from things and persons of the outside world without substituting them by others in his phantasy. Wherever this does take place, i.e., substitution, it seems to be an attempt at repair which has for its object a reattachment of the libido to an object.

The question then arises, what is the destiny of this withdrawn libido—in the schizophrenic and it is here that the grandiose delusions of these patients offer some explanation. This delusion of grandeur most probably develops at the expense of the object-libido which withdrawn from the outside world is applied to the ego—result narcissism. This megalomania, however, must not be looked upon as something new, but as an accentuation and elaboration of a similar state originally existent—in consequence of the mechanism just described. Freud does not intend to enter here into a discussion of the nature of schizophrenia but these

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considerations seem to him to offer one of the points of justification for the introduction of the concept of narcissism into psychopathology.

Another justification of this legitimate extension of the libido-theory he sees in the results obtained from the study of the psyche of primitive man and of the child of the present day. In the former are found traits which taken singly may be readily related to delusions of grandeur, such as the overestimation of the power of their wishes and psychic acts, the “Allmacht der Gedanken” (omnipotence of thought), the belief in the magic power of words, a technique against the outside world-magic which may be looked upon as the consequent application of these megalomanic premises. A similar attitude towards the outside world may be observed in the child of today. In this way one assumes the existence of a primary libido-saturation of the ego from which later on portions are given off to outside objects—but which still retain a relation to the outside world similar to the one existing between the pseudopdoia and the parent protoplasmic body. This emanation of the libido to the outside world and the power of its withdrawal is very apparent and crudely illustrates the distinction between the ego-libido and object-libido. The more the one consumes, the poorer the other becomes.

Freud next undertakes to answer the following two questions, the detailed consideration of which does not lend itself to a brief review. (1) What is the relation of the narcissism spoken of to the outside described by psa.—as an early stage of the libido? (2) If one attributes to the ego a primary saturation with libido, what is the necessity of separating a sexual libido from a non-sexual energy of the ego-motives. Would not the assumption of a uniform psychic energy do away with all these difficulties of differentiation between a self-motive energy and self-libido and between self-libido and object-libido?

Freud does not believe so, and it may be illuminating to recall here that the obverse is practically Jung's theory of the libido. Freud concedes the possibility of a correctness of the assumption that this primary psychic energy (libido according to Jung) may become libidinous (in the Freudian sense) after it has found its object but believes in reality the individual leads a double existence, first a self-motivated one and second as a link in a chain which he subserves, albeit against his will. Later in the discussion he is again willing to concede that libido (Freudian) may be simply a differentiation of the primary psychic energy (libido according to Jung).

It will be seen that thus far Freud has occupied himself with a refutation of Jung's libido theory, he particularly takes objection to Jung's assertion that Freud was himself obliged to broaden out his concept of the libido on account of the difficulties encountered in the analysis of the Schreber case. To return to the discussion of narcissism, Freud believes that whereas his libido theory came to fruition as result of the study of the transference neuroses—the further elaboration of the concept of

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narcissism will depend upon more thorough psychoanalytic studies of the schizophrenic. He nevertheless sees promising results in this field from an investigation of irreversible somatic diseases, hypochondriasis and the love relations of the sexes. It is a fact of common knowledge that one tortured by the pains of irreversible organic disease withdraws his interest from the outside world and centers same upon self. The sufferer withdraws his libido-attachments within himself to emanate them again upon recovery. Here libido and self-interest suffer the same destiny and again become undifferentiable. The well-known egotism of the invalid covers both.

This narcissistic transformation of ever so intense love-attachments is a thing of common observation. Sleep acts in a similar manner, to be more specific, everything becomes centered upon the desire to sleep. The egotism of the dreamer may be mentioned in this connection. In both instances one sees a change in the distribution of the libido in consequence of a change in the self.

The hypochondriac behaves in the same manner. He withdraws interest as well as libido from outside objects and concentrates the same upon the bodily organ which holds his attention. In his very proper attempt to justify this identification of the working of libido in cases of actual suffering based upon irreversible organic disease, with hypochondriasis, Freud enters into a very interesting discussion of the latter subject which is, however, quite beside the subject at hand, namely narcissism. He believes hypochondriasis to stand in a similar relation to paraphrenia as exists between the actual neuroses and hysteria and anxiety neuroses, i.e., it depends upon an ego-libido as the other depends upon an object-libido.

Finally Freud sees an approach to a more thorough knowledge of the subject of narcissism in the study of the love-life of the sexes. He emphasizes the tendency of individuals who have suffered some insult in their libido-development to choose as their love-object a person resembling more closely their own self (perverts and homosexuals), thus a narcissistic form of object-selection. Then he assumes that there exist for the individual two possible modes of object-selection—the narcissistic type and the Anlehnungstype, along with the assumption of an inherent narcissism in everyone which may gain full expression should the individual choose the narcissistic type of object-selection. In further illustration of the difference between the Anlehnungstype and narcissistic type of object-selection Freud's tabulation may be given:

One loves according to the narcissistic type of object-selection—(a) that which one is himself (self-love), (b) that which one was himself, (c) that which one would like to be himself, (d) the person which was a part of one's self. According to the Anlehnungstype of object-selection (imitation of mother)—one loves: (1) the nursing woman, (2) the protecting man.

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The extremely tender relationship which certain parents bear to their children, the entirely senseless overestimation by certain parents of the powers and accomplishments of their children, an estimation absolutely neglected by conditions actually in existence, is according to Freud a rejuvenation and accentuation of the inherent original narcissism of the parents.

The varied disturbances which may owe their origin to this original narcissism of the child are too numerous to be discussed. One of these, the “castration complex” (penis anxiety in the boy—penis-envy in the girl) is given some consideration by Freud in this paper. He identifies this “castration complex” which according to him is only one of the many pathological deviations that may depend upon the original narcissism of the child—with Adler's “masculine protest” and winds up by saying that he had seen many neurotics in whom the “masculine protest” (Adler) “castration complex” (Freud) played no etiological rôle.

In the succeeding pages Freud occupies himself with a very ingenious and highly interesting discussion of the development of the ego-ideal spurred on by the desire for a return of that gratifying original narcissism, and contrasts, albeit inferentially, this view with Adler's view of the neuroses. Adler, he states, is quite right in emphasizing the import of the realization of organ-inferiority by an individual for the setting into motion of those activities which are to lead the individual to a higher goal. He even concedes the correctness of Adler's views concerning the role of overcompensation, but very definitely refutes Adler's etiological claims for this realization of organ-inferiority, etc. Not every artist, according to him, suffers from visual defects—not every speaker was originally a stutterer, and the hysteric woman is as a rule the attractive one of her sex. In justice to Adler, it may be said that his theory is not voiced by him in a manner as to be so readily refuted as Freud would have it. According to Freud the development of the ego consists in getting away from the original narcissism and manifests an intensive striving to regain the same. The getting away from the original narcissism occurs through the transference of the libido to an ego-ideal conditioned by the outside world—gratification takes place through a fulfillment of this ego-ideal.

Without entering into a critical discussion of Freud's highly interesting paper, its contents may be summed up in the following manner: (1) The postulation of the theory of an original inherent narcissistic component in the psychosexuality of every individual. (2) The two types of object-selection made possible by this original narcissism—(a) Anlehungstype or object-selection simulating the nourishing and care-taking mother or the protecting father, and (b) the narcissistic type of object-selection simulating one's own self, be it what one is, what one was, what one would wish to be or that which was a part of one (offspring). (3) The development of the ego-consciousness the egoideal

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depends upon a desire for a return of the original narcissism from which the individual has been removed because of a transference of the libido to outside objects. (4) An endeavor to repudiate Jung's theory of the libido, and insistence of strict differentiation between psychic-sexual energy as such (Jung's libido) from sexual-libido (Freud), agreeing that the latter may perhaps be a special differentiation of the former. (5) An endeavor to repudiate Adler's views of the neuroses—an identification of Adler's “masculine protest” with Freud's “castration complex” thus very much restricting the etiological significance of the former neuroses.

2.   Abraham. The Restrictions and Transformation of the Peeping-Desire in the Psychoneurotic along with a Discussion of Analogous Manifestations in Race-Psychology.—Supporting himself upon the detailed analyses of several cases, Abraham endeavors to throw further light upon the significance of the peeping-mania, as a partial sex-instinct and the eye as an erogenous zone. Like its antithesis, exhibitionism, peeping which in early life manifests itself in an unrestrained fashion, comes in later life, in the normal course of events, under the domination of repression and sublimation. In the psychoneurotic these restraints and transformations assume abnormal proportions, while at the same time the repressed tendencies to keep up a continuous warfare against repression.

Freud, in a short contribution to the subject of psychogenic visual disturbances, furnished the guiding viewpoints which lead to a more profound understanding of the neurotic blockings and transformations of the peeping-desire. In this connection Freud considers his views concerning the partial sex-instincts—and the eye as an erogenous zone, concerning which he has the following to say: “The eyes take cognizance of not only those changes in the environment which are of importance for the sustaining life but also of those characteristics of objects which render them objects of love-selection—i.e., their charms. It is not easy for one to serve two masters at the same time. The more intimate the relation of such a double-functioning organ to the one of the important instincts, the more it neglects the other. Should the instinct of vision make demands which are quantitatively too high, or which are directed towards forbidden objects, there takes place a conflict of instincts. Should the partial sex-instinct which is subserved by vision, i.e., the sexual peeping-desire, call forth against itself the defenders of the ego-instincts (self-preservative instincts) on account of its too high demands, so that the ideation which expresses its craving becomes repressed and removed from consciousness, there takes place a general disturbance in the relation between the eye and vision to the ego and to consciousness. The ego then loses control over the organ which now places itself entirely under the direction of the repressed sex-instinct. This state of affairs gives the impression as if the ego had gone altogether too far in its function of repression, inasmuch as the eye entirely refuses to see anything since vision has become so deeply concerned with sexuality. Much more interesting is

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the opposite consideration which concerns itself with the activity of the repressed peeping-craving. It is the revenge, the come-back of this repressed instinct to extend its dominion over this subservient organ, since it is deprived of the possibility of further psychic development.

To further illuminate this interaction between a partial sex-instinct and an ego or self-preservative instinct (Ich Trieb) with the localization of the battleground at a particular erogenous zone, i.e., the eye, Abraham devotes the succeeding fifty pages of his paper. He discusses the neurotic's fear of light and other neurotic visual disturbances—shows by means of analyses of cases the justification for the identification of the sun with the father—the part the sun plays in the psychology of the individual and that of the race, and speaks of the importance and frequency of a clinical entity which may be described as a light-phobia. He emphasizes the ambivalent character of the conception of the eye, the quite universal tendency to speak of the visual organs in the singular, the part played by the cyclops in mythology, and feels justified in looking upon the eye as an upward displacement of the sexual organ. The eye as a sexual symbol has been already fully emphasized by other authors.

The significance of darkness in the psychology of the neuroses, the psychology of doubting and simpering—with parallels from race-psychology, and the origin of the sun and ghost phobias out of an infantile totemism, form very interesting subdivisions of Abraham's paper. Nowhere, however, does one see an attempt at correlation and systematization of the various concepts discussed, so that the paper lends itself very poorly to a brief review—we have endeavored to discuss, in a general way, the content of the paper but for details must refer the reader to the original.

3.   Jones, Ernest. The Virgin Mary's Conception through the Ear. A Contribution to the Relation of Art to Religion.—In a highly interesting and scholarly paper of some seventy pages, Jones undertakes to illuminate by means of an analysis of an old legend about the Immaculate Conception his thesis concerning the relationship between art and religion. The legend which has been a popular theme with many poets and artists of the past is to the effect that the conception of the Christ by the Virgin Mary took place through the latter's ear—in the breath of the Holy Ghost that penetrated her through that organ. Jones states his thesis as follows:

“The close relationship which exists between art and religion has its origin in the intimate association between the roots of the two. The relationship itself—which is most strikingly illustrated in the higher religious systems—manifests itself in various ways. At times, just through the diametrical antithesis of the two as illustrated in the iconoclastic outbreak of Savanarola and the Puritans against art—but more frequently through the striking association of the two. This association may be a positive one, i.e., when art and religion go hand in hand in the worship of God (religious dances, painting, music, song, architecture,

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etc.) or a negative one when a similar state of affairs is looked upon as sinful and abhorrent. It has been found that the final sources of artistic creative power lie in those regions of the mind which are outside of consciousness, and one may assert with considerable certainty that the conception of the artist will be the more profound, the further he gains access to the unconscious in his search for inspiration. It is likewise well known that among these sources of artistic inspiration, psychosexual phantasies play the most important rôle. Artistic creation is a form of expression for many things—for ambition, compassion, craving after ideal beauty, etc., but in the last analysis, esthetics has to do with the latter, namely, beauty, and to such a degree that esthetics may be defined as that which is evoked through the contemplation of the beautiful. Analysis of this craving for ideal beauty shows that one of its chief sources is to be found in a rebellion against the cruder and more repulsive sides of our material life, which originates psychogenetically from the child's reaction to his excrementious interests. When one keeps in mind to what extent these repressed coprophilic tendencies contribute in their sublimated forms to every artistic activity, be it painting, sculpture or architecture on the one hand, or music and poetry on the other—it becomes evident that the important rôle which these primitive, infantile interests play in the artist's craving for beauty, must not be overlooked. The reaction against these is at the bottom of this craving, and the sublimation determines the form which the craving assumes.

When one comes to trace the sources of religious activity, religious interests and rites in the unconscious, one finds as Jones has shown to be the case with baptism, that the same material just spoken of is likewise utilized to a very large extent here, but that religious activity differs from the artistic in one important particular, namely, in having its chief source not in the infantile coprophilic phantasies but in another group of infantile interests, the incest phantasies. Thus at first sight, art and religion seem to have entirely different biological roots. Freud's investigations, however, have shown that the infantile coprophilia is an important part of the still undifferentiated infantile sexuality. This viewpoint furnishes a deeper insight into the subject and a satisfactory explanation of the problem—because inasmuch as artistic and religious activities have their origin simply in different components of the same instinct—in components which at their sources are inseparably intertwined, it becomes quite plain why they stand also in close relationship in their developed forms.

To enter in detail into the technical part of Jones’ paper would lead one entirely far beyond the limits of an abstract. As has already been stated, the subject of this study is the old legend concerning the Immaculate Conception, and the treatment it has received at the hands of the artist. In this connection, Jones treats psychoanalytically a painting by Simone Martini in which the breath of God (Holy Ghost) is represented

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as emanating from the mouth of Gabriel, and as penetrating the ear of the Virgin through the medium of the former's words. The questions which Jones undertakes to answer are, (1) Why is the creative stuff represented as emanating from the mouth, and why, especially, as the breath? (2) Why is it the dove that transmits this breath of life? (3) Why is the ear represented as the receptive organ? After discussing in great detail the parts played by the breath, dove and ear in the symbolism of mankind, and the phylogenetic and ontogenetic significance of each, Jones offers the following explanation: As has already been indicated, Jones sees in art, i.e., in the attempt to delineate ideal beauty, a protest against the more repulsive, crude, coprophilic infantile phantasies. Analysis of the symbolic significance of the breath and its various attributes as its invisibility, moistness, noise, warmth, odor, etc., establishes the fact that the basis for the association of breath with life—as illustrated in the stories of creation of the various religious systems—and as represented in the legend of the Immaculate Conception, is not to be found, as might be readily assumed, in the importance which respiratory activity plays for the maintenance of life. Jones maintains that the original source of this association is to be found in the infantile contemplation of the parental flatus—and the symbolic significance of intestinal gases in ontogeny as well as phylogeny. Its ontogenetic significance has been repeatedly demonstrated through individual analyses, while literature furnishes many illustrations of the part it has played in phylogeny. Among these may be mentioned the following: in the Satapatha-Brahmana and in several other places in the Vedic writings, it is described how the Lord of existence—Pragopoti—who created the various other gods through the out- and in-flowing breath of his mouth further created all mankind through the upward direction of the whiff which emanated from the lower part of his body (Hinterteil).

It was the sublimation of this crude, repulsive infantile conception of Creation, which has given rise to the pure, impalpable breath of God—in the stories of the Creation. The artist in putting this idea on canvas has likewise endeavored to represent it in a pure esthetic, sublimated form. Jones’ treatment of the dove, the symbol of purity, as God's messenger, and the ear as the receptive organ is along the same lines, but in order to get a full appreciation of this masterful contribution, it must be read in the original.

4.   Federn. Concerning Two Typical Dream-Sensations.—In a paper of about fifty pages, Federn discusses the significance of the sensations of restraint and flight in the dream. His paper is based upon the analysis of several cases on the ground of which he comes to the conclusion that the flying-dream signifies a largely sexual ability and will (Können and Wollen). The restraint dream on the other hand is the negation of such an ability and will—an absence of need. Further than this Federn's paper does not lend itself to analysis.

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5.   Freud. The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement.—While not adding much that is new to the psychoanalytic movement, Freud's paper will be read with a great deal of interest by those concerned in the destinies of this movement. From the reviewer's standpoint Freud's paper offers very little material aside from that embraced in the views which he expresses concerning Jung and Adler—two individuals who had considerable to do with the schism in the psychoanalytic ranks. His attitude towards Jung is sufficiently well known to require further detailed explanation. From having at one time (not so long ago) looked upon Jung as his legitimate successor in the leadership of the psychoanalytic movement—he now characterizes Jung's contributions to the libido theory as an unclear, impenetrable, confused exposition of something that has nothing to do with psychoanalysis—and the author of which is to be considered the most dangerous foe to the psychoanalytic movement, because of the prominent part he once played in it.

Those who are inclined to see some value in Adler's theory of the neuroses will be pleased to note that in comparing Adler's with Jung's modification of his theories, Freud considers the former's as unquestionably the most important. He sees in Adler's work three components of decidedly uneven importance, viz., the very valuable contributions to the psychology of the ego, the superfluous but permissible translation of psychoanalytic facts into the new jargon, and the disfigurement and defacements of these facts in so far as they do not fit his ego-preconceptions. In none of these does Freud see anything new. Psychoanalysis has always taken cognizance of the importance of the ego, though it had never devoted to it the attention which Adler would demand for it. This concept is of considerable importance in demonstrating that libidinous components are present in all egoistic aspirations. Adler's theory emphasizes the antithesis of this in that he stresses the ego-components of libidinous instincts. This Freud thinks would be a very valuable gain, were it not for the fact that Adler always employs this proposition for the purpose of denying the libidinous components in favor of the egoistic ones. For the second component of Adler's theory psychoanalysis must vouch for its own goods. Some of the changes in the terminology introduced by Adler, Freud considers of some value, as for instance, the substitution of “Sicherung” for “Schlussmarsregel” as used by Freud. In the third component, Freud sees that which definitely alienates Adler's “Individual psychology” from psychoanalysis. “The masculine protest,” Adler's motor for all psychic activity certainly does exist, but it is equally certain that id does not play the part attributed it by him. On the whole, Freud sees in Adler's theory too strict a “system” something which psychoanalysis always avoided becoming. Whatever convictions one may gain from reading Freud's criticism of Adler, the personal element which runs through the paper can escape no one. When Freud in illustrating some of the motives of Adler's deflection from the echt-psychoanalysts quotes

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him as having stated once in the presence of a small group of the Vienna Society—” Do you believe that it is such a great pleasure for me to stand in your shadow the rest of my life “—it must rob his criticism of some of its value.

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Article Citation

Willard, C. (1939). Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische Forschung1. Psychoanal. Rev., 26(4):567-577

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