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Gilligan, C. Kreider, H. O'Neill1, K. (1995). Transforming Psychological Inquiry: Clarifying and Strengthening Connections. Psychoanal. Rev., 82(6):801-826.

(1995). Psychoanalytic Review, 82(6):801-826

Transforming Psychological Inquiry: Clarifying and Strengthening Connections

Carol Gilligan, Holly Kreider and Kate O'Neill1

A series of questions about psychological research have come to us directly from our experiences and observations working with young girls in a longitudinal study. The girls we worked with challenged the conventions of psychological research in ways that we, trained in these conventions, found striking and surprising. Listening closely to these girls, we heard their open resistance to research practices that they experienced as disconnected. We have taken this resistance seriously by exploring ways to reconnect, remember, and transform psychological inquiry.

Relational Channel Markers: Navigating the Shoals of Psychological Research

We begin our writing by charting a course — identifying the existing currents that influence our journey and marking the channels that we will explore. In other words, we must first describe who the girls are, who we are, the study in which the interviews took place, our method of listening and responding, and the prior work in girls' psychology and research methodology that inform this work. Only then can we discuss our destination point — exactly what the girls have told us and how this information might transform psychological inquiry.

The girls whose astute methodological observations we will later describe, were participants in a longitudinal study about psychological development.2

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