Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Lamothe, R. (2003). Poor Ebenezer: Avarice as Corruption of the Erotic and Search for a Transformative Object. Psychoanal. Rev., 90(1):23-43.

(2003). Psychoanalytic Review, 90(1):23-43

Poor Ebenezer: Avarice as Corruption of the Erotic and Search for a Transformative Object

Ryan Lamothe, Ph.D.

Greed is a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without ever reaching satisfaction. (Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom, 1941, p. 136)

Charles Dickens’ (1938) story, A Christmas Carol, is a cautionary tale about the consequences of a single-minded, greedy pursuit of money. It is, as well, a parable of a transformation from the self-imposed isolation of avarice, and its concomitant sense of deadness, to vital companionship. In the story, Ebenezer Scrooge's greed is accompanied by a vicious and sadistic hostility that leaves nearly everyone, even dogs, running for cover. A reader is not initially moved to pity Scrooge, but can readily recognize the poverty of his existence. Although a wealthy man, he is indeed poor and only after being confronted by the Spirits does Scrooge acknowledge how his avarice has made him poor. Although a greedy character does not evoke pity, Dickens, like any good writer, was able to make Scrooge into a sympathetic, though pitiful, figure. The late-night visits by the Spirits help us see how loss, loneliness, and the fear of further loss motivated Scrooge's greed.

In this article, I briefly review Western views on the problem and consequences of greed before delving into psychoanalytic perspectives on greed. Philosophical and Western Christian depictions of greed provide insights into the dynamics and consequences of greed in human life.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.