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Richards, A. (2013). Freud's Free Clinics: A Tale of Two Continents. Psychoanal. Rev., 100(6):819-838.

(2013). Psychoanalytic Review, 100(6):819-838

Freud's Free Clinics: A Tale of Two Continents

Arnold Richards, M.D.

Two important schools of thought began in the nineteenth century in Central Europe: Marxism and psychoanalysis. They had much common but there were significant differences. The Marxist influence on early psychoanalysts played out in one way in Europe and another way in the United States. Freud and his Austro-Marxist colleagues were committed to human welfare and social justice. They established a network of clinics that offered psychoanalysis to patients of limited means. The free clinics movement did not cross the Atlantic. There was a cohort of Marxists in the United States who belonged to the United States Communist Party. They were not publicly socially committed, but this paper will try to show that their Marxism influenced their psychoanalytic theory, practice, and politics.

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