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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(2015). The Americanization of Narcissism. By Elizabeth Lunbeck. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014, 271 pp.. Psychoanal. Rev., 102(1):166-169.

(2015). Psychoanalytic Review, 102(1):166-169

The Americanization of Narcissism. By Elizabeth Lunbeck. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014, 271 pp.

Recently at a party a friend asked, “Is a narcissist someone who always has to have everything she wants when she wants it, like a baby or a celebrity?” Another friend chimed in, “What about someone who always takes credit for everything even when he doesn't deserve it?” Still a third added, “I thought it was those people who always have to be the center of attention?” All sounded true; narcissism is an unwieldy, confusing, and elastic concept. In unpacking it one finds various clinical and historical narratives with which to contend. Untangling and organizing the narratives of narcissism is the project of Elizabeth Lunbeck, a professor of history at Vanderbilt University, in her new book The Americanization of Narcissism. A rigorous, fascinating, and exhaustive study of narcissism in the United States as a symptom, societal problem, and developmental achievement, Lunbeck's story centers around the tension between two figures of the 1970s, one for and the other against the book's subject. The psychoanalyst Heinz Kohut and his “self psychology” distinguished “healthy narcissism” from “pathological narcissism,” recommending empathy as a technique for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists working with patients suffering from symptoms of narcissism, itself a relatively new diagnosis at the time.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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