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Spitz, R.A. Emde, R.N. Metcalf, D.R. (1970). Further Prototypes of Ego Formation—A Working Paper from a Research Project on Early Development. Psychoanal. St. Child, 25:417-441.

(1970). Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 25:417-441

Further Prototypes of Ego Formation—A Working Paper from a Research Project on Early Development

René A. Spitz, M.D., Robert N. Emde, M.D. and David R. Metcalf, M.D.

For many years, separately and together, the authors have been conducting research with infants. These investigations have involved detailed observations of infant behavior, electroencephalographic studies, naturalistic studies of mother-infant interaction, and a number of theoretical explorations derived from these and other investigations.

Our recent research efforts have been inspired by Freud's trailbreaking work in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality(1905). The principal theoretical statements which have guided us were formulated systematically in three publications of Spitz (1958), (1959), (1961).

The following propositions from an overall framework for our research.

1. There is no aspect, activity, function, or structure of the psyche that is not subject to development.

2. Development is the resultant of the interplay of innate and experiential factors which themselves are often inextricably interwoven.

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