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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(2001). Mitteilungen. Psyche – Z Psychoanal., 55(1):96.

(2001). Psyche – Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse, 55(1):96


10.2.2001 Versuch über die Abstraktion IV
  Eine Tagung des Frankfurter Psychoanalytischen Instituts im Museum für Moderne Kunst, Domstr. 10, 60311 Frankfurt/M., von 10-18 Uhr. Information: PH Dr. Reimut Reiche und Dr. Katherine Stroczan, Frankfurter Psychoanalytisches Institut e.V., Wiesenau 27-29, 60324 Frankfurt/M., Tel.: 069/174628.
10.2.2001 Psychotherapie mit straffälligen Menschen
  Fachtagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Psychotherapie im Strafvollzug in Mannheim. Information: Deutscher Psychotherapeutenverband, Bundesallee 213-214, 10719 Berlin, Tel.: 030/235009-0, Fax: −44.
28.2.-2.3.2001 Die subjektive Seite der Schizophrenie
  Fachtagung in Hamburg. Information: Kongreßbüro, B. Hansen, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Klinik u. Poliklinik f. Psychiatrie u. Psychotherapie, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Tel./Fax: 040-42803-4804, e-mail:

Die Gesellschaft für Exilforschung e.V. verleiht Herrn Hans Keilson, dem Arzt, Psychiater und Psychoanalytiker, Schriftsteller und Dichter die Ehrenmitgliedschaft.

Forschungspreis Psychotherapie in der Medizin

Verliehen durch das Kuratorium »Forschungspreis Psychotherapie in der Medizin« mit einer Dotation DM 5000.- zur Auszeichnung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten, die neue Erkenntnisse für die Psychotherapie in der Medizin erbracht haben. Bereits publizierte Arbeiten dürfen nicht länger als zwei Jahre veröffentlicht sein. Einsendungen von deutschsprachigen Arbeiten in vierfacher Ausfertigung bis 31. März erbeten an den Vorsitzenden des Kuratorium Prof. Dr. Gerhardt Nissen, Anne-Frank-Str. 9, 97082 Würzburg.

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