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Freud, S. (1892). Draft K The Neuroses of Defence from Extracts from the Flies Papers: (A Christmas Fairy Tale). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume I ( 1886-1899): Pre-Psycho-Analytic Publications and Unpublished Drafts, 220-229.

Freud, S. (1892). [SEA220a1]Draft K The Neuroses of Defence from Extracts from the Flies Papers. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume I ( 1886-1899): Pre-Psycho-Analytic Publications and Unpublished Drafts, 220-229

[SEA220a1]Draft K The Neuroses of Defence from Extracts from the Flies Papers: [SEA220a2](A Christmas Fairy Tale) Book Information Previous Up Next

Sigmund Freud

[SEA220a3]There are four types of these and many forms. I can only make a comparison between hysteria, obsessional neurosis and one form of paranoia. They have various things in common. They are pathological aberrations of normal psychical affective states: of conflict (hysteria), of self-reproach (obsessional neurosis), of mortification (paranoia), of mourning (acute hallucinatory amentia). They differ from these affects in that they do not lead to anything being settled but to permanent damage to the ego. They come about subject to the same precipitating causes as their affective prototypes, provided that the cause fulfils two more preconditions-that it is of a sexual kind and that it occurs during the period before sexual maturity (the preconditions of sexuality and infantilism). About preconditions applying to the individual concerned I have no fresh knowledge. In general I should say that heredity is a further precondition, in that it facilitates and increases the pathological affect-the precondition, that is, which mainly makes possible the gradations between the normal and the extreme case. I do not believe that

1 [SEA220a4][This was enclosed in Letter 39, of January 1, 1896, which is mentioned on the previous page and will be found on p. 388 below. It was therefore no doubt written during the preceding days: hence its sub-title. This is in some parts a fairly close precursor of the second paper on the neuro-psychoses of defence (1896b), which was sent off by Freud to the publishers scarcely more than a month after this (on February 5).

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